Traditional contributions in these areas have focused on flood control and management in particular and water resources management in general with strategies for disaster reduction.
Water disaster management and mitigation encompasses many diverse needs to include sustainable and equitable growth, social environment and living conditions, rural and urban needs, sustaining natural resources and environment, effective and dynamic sector management emphasizing both decentralization and centralization, stake holder decision inclusion in decision making, regulation, and service delivery and monitoring.
Between 1991 and 2000, more than 665,000 people died world wide in 2557 natural disasters, of which 90 percent were water-related. Of these water-related disasters, floods represented about 50 percent, water-borne diseases about 28 percent, and droughts 11 percent. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said the damage done by water-related disasters thwarts sustainable development and perpetuates poverty.
Climate change and increasing variability ensures water-related hazards will not abate any time soon and that disaster risk reduction will be called on more and more to improve our capacity to cope. Reducing the risk of water-related hazards means, on the one hand, developing our capacity to monitor their magnitude, duration, timing and location, and on the other, assessing and reducing our vulnerability.
The economic cost of water-related natural disasters is considerable. As more and more people live on marginal land, there is increasingly greater risk from flooding or drought. Worldwide, there is a shortage of effective disaster preparedness and mitigation methods, since risk reduction is not an integral part of water resource management, as it has mainly been viewed as a technical problem, unrelated to the factors that force people to live in risky areas. Lack of political will is also a factor. However, appropriate risk-mitigation investment, and the redirection of resources into prevention, offers significant economic benefits, as well as reduction in loss of life, improvements in welfare and social stability.
There is a link
between water resources, variability and
risk. Investment is
needed to mitigate
the risks and affect the large opportunity costs of adapting to the
water-induced shocks on economies. As
such, water is a non-fungible resource for human existence and
A key counter measure to solve water resource issues is sustainable utilization of water resources. In view of the coordinated arrangement of population, resources, environment and economic development, principles must be formulated to include overall planning while considering all potential development, reuse, treatment and their integrated development to provide for future needs.
Influenced by the natural conditions and climate, the distribution of precipitation is often very uneven during any given year and also among periods of years. About 70% of the total annual precipitation is concentrated mainly in flood season. That is to say, about 2/3 of the total amount of water resource are flood runoff, which often cause flood disasters during any flood season. This is especially true for the middle and lower reaches of large river systems. These same areas often contain more than half of a states total population and a majority of the total cultivated land while producing a plurality of the gross economic product. At the same time, much of the ground elevations in these regions are located below flood level. This results in the potential flood disaster always threatening the economic, construction, sustainable live cycle as well as the inhabitant’s normal life cycle.
A balance between top
down management and
bottom up management is an increasing challenge to this process. Most
Sustainability will require traditional flood retardation portions of river basins be protected against encroachment, preparation for global and regional climate change and sea level rise, and preparation of el Nino and La Nina effects on floods, storms and draught.
Water disaster management and mitigation and sustainability encompasses many diverse needs to include sustainable and equitable growth, social environment and living conditions, rural and urban needs, sustaining natural resources and environment, effective and dynamic sector management emphasizing both decentralization and centralization, stake holder decision inclusion in decision making, regulation, service delivery and monitoring.
Water is the global commodity consumers, industry and agriculture all scream for and about at the same time. It faces scarce supplies, rising prices and government intervention and needs more factories to meet growing demand.
Water the resource by which all life thrives and without which all life dies, covers 75 percent of the planet’s surface, yet only 1% is fresh water. The world population is sky rocking and estimated to be around 8 billion by 2025. The demand for water to sustain, fed, and employ the population is projected to double. It is estimated that at this time as much as 40% of the estimated world population will living in “water-stressed” countries having inadequate quantities or quality of water supplies.
Agriculture gulps down more water to feed more people, as cities and sprawl alike draw off more water for their residents, industries and power plants, increasing susceptible to water stresses. Water disaster such as floods, draughts, storms, global warming, sea rising, lack of treatment and distribution facilities, and management may make water the next oil type economy. Understanding the risk and integration of risk management in the socio-economic development process while including both inter and intra basin driven sustainability is vitally important.
Key elements and topics:
· Living with risks.
· Integration of disaster risk management into socio-economic development process.
· Regional and local cooperation strategy.
· Partnerships for disaster reduction.
· Strengthening institutional and policy teamwork for effective Regional partnerships on early warning and preparedness.
· Promotion of best practices on effective systems of assessment of socio-economic impact of disasters for policy and decision making.
· Support regional efforts to link rehabilitation and reconstruction to risk management for sustainable development
· Application of internet computer technology and space technology for more effective disaster information management.