|CE - What Research Says|
What research says and does not say about managing the classroom environment…
Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching. (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Charlotte Danielson defines the classroom environment by separating into standards in her Enhancing Professional Practice, A Framework for Teaching (1996, 2007). The framework for teaching, described in Danielson’s book, is based on the PRAXIS III: Classroom Performance Assessments criteria developed by the Educational Testing Service (ETS, 2008). The framework identifies the aspects of teacher responsibilities that have been documented through empirical studies and theoretical research as promoting improved student learning (Danielson, 1996, 2007). Danielson divides the framework into four domains. Domain 1 is planning and preparation. Domain 2 is classroom environment. Domain 3 is instruction. Domain 4 is professional responsibilities. Danielson’s (1996, 2007) Classroom Environment domain includes 5 standards, labeled A through E. A is creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport. B is establishing a culture for learning. C is managing classroom procedures. D is managing student behavior. E is organizing physical space.
Gee, J. (2001). What graduates in education fear most about their first year of teaching. Paper Presented to the Louisiana Educational Research Association. Baton Rouge, LA, March 8-9, 2001.
This study examined the factors that most concerned beginning teachers about their first year of teaching. The study assessed the attitudes of 24 preservice teachers who were enrolled in a senior-level undergraduate methods course and 36 graduate students with teaching experience who were enrolled in a graduate level methods course. Participants completed a questionnaire that focused on: discipline and classroom management, the Louisiana Teacher Assessment Program, planning and meeting curriculum standards, portrayal of teacher confidence and assertiveness, student age levels, student apathy, approval and respect from colleagues, student diversity, working with parents, and motivating students. Gee (discovered these teachers express the strongest concerns for discipline and classroom management.
Landau, B. M. (2001, April). Teaching classroom management: A stand-alone necessity forPreparing new teachers. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference, Seattle, WA.
This paper presents several arguments for including a stand-alone course on classroom management in every teacher preparation program. Some teacher preparation programs do not offer any course in classroom management, while others offer classroom management as an elective or as a topic embedded into another course. In the latter situation, the course instructors typically have expertise in the primary topic and not in classroom management. Because of limited time and a lack of knowledge on the part of instructors, the management strategies taught are often quick and easy systems of rewards and punishments. According to Landau (2001), effective classroom management strategies addressing individuals’ needs while protecting the interests of the learning community are the most valuable skills for teachers to develop. Furthermore, Landau believes that classroom management has been devalued to the point of not even being discussed in many teacher education programs and that many teacher educators have bought into the idea that classroom management is really just a “bag of tricks” that can be acquired by new teachers as they begin their careers.
Martin, N. K., & Shoho, A. (1999). Beliefs regarding classroom management style: Differences between traditional and alternative certification teachers. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 19-23, 1999.
Martin and Shoho define discipline as the structures and rules for student behavior and the efforts to ensure that students comply with those rules. Classroom management is a broader term that not only includes discipline but also the concepts of learning, social interaction, and student behavior.
Schlecty, Philip. Working on the Work: An Action Plan for Teachers, Principals and Superintendants.
Schlecty promotes the use of student engagement through teacher driven lesson designs that include elements to compel students to create products that display their learning. Teachers are shown how to prevent lessons from failing and are given an understanding of how to measure engagement through assessment and grade level content. Schlecty found that teacher planning with high student engagement in mind will produce high level results.