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Touching Lives. Transforming Health Care.

Therapeutic Interventions Research Laboratory

Lab Director

Dr. Cindy Trowbridge

Dr. Cindy Trowbridge
Associate Professor,
Athletic Training Program
Department of Kinesiology

About the Therapeutic Interventions Research Laboratory

The primary focus of the TIR is to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of therapeutic interventions including diathermy, electrical stimulation, cryotherapy, over-the-counter pain relief products, and functional exercise. Currently, the lab receives industry support for the investigation of several modality applications. The secondary focus is for collaboration focusing on improving the awareness of youth sport concussions among caregivers using the health belief model and message source credibility.

Research produced in this lab contributes to the body of knowledge in Athletic Training, especially treatment and rehabilitation. This has a direct impact on athletes, especially student athletes, and their rehabilitation, therapy practices, and considerations regarding return to play after injury.

The TIR seeks to engage undergraduate and graduate students in the research process as it applies to developing evidence based medicine related to the practice of athletic training.

Lab Personnel

Stephen Newhart, M.S.
Stephen Newhart
M.S., CSCS*D, TSAC-F, NSCA-CPT
Ph.D. Student

Current Projects

Interested in being a research volunteer in the TIR Lab?
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  • A comparison of different depths of tissue temperature changes during 20-minutes of continuous shortwave diathermy, Thermacare, and Therapearl microwaveable heat wrap within thigh muscle.
    • Efficacy of common muscle heating modalities and their depth of penetration. Do over-the-counter products really produce “deep” heating?
    • Working alongside Appian Partners LLC to provide clinical evidence for the effectiveness of low wattage continuous shortwave diathermy on muscle heating. Clinical evidence is being used in Premarket Notification (510(k)) for FDA with the intention to prove device equivalency.
  • The Effect of Cyrotherapy on Blood Flow and Muscle Temperature.
    • Principal investigator: Dr. R. Matt Brothers
    • Determining the safety and effectiveness of continuous circulating water units and cryotherapy on resting subjects lower leg.
  • The Effectiveness of Objective Monitoring and Exercise Intervention for Chronic Low-Back Pain Management
    • Co-investigators: Dr. Robert Gatchel, Dr. Hanli Liu, Ryan Hulla
    • The purpose of project is to compare changes in pain and function achieved in a standard senior fitness program versus an individualized therapy program consisting of multi-dimensional exercises.
    • Subjective and objective measurements of pain are being employed including the PROMIS scale and Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) which is used to measure brain blood flow and measure brain functioning.

Recent Presentations

Dr. Cindy Trowbridge
Dr. Trowbridge at NATA 2017

Trowbridge CA. The Effect of Wavelength Properties and Thermal Gradient of Various Thermal Modalities on Distal Quadriceps Intramuscular Temperature. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Annual Meeting. Houston, TX.  June 2017.

Trowbridge CA and Patel SJ. Developing a Health Communication Intervention for Caregivers of Youth Athletes. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Annual Meeting. Baltimore, MD.  June 2016.

Trowbridge CA. Cryotherapy and Rehabilitation. Dallas Fort Worth Sports Medicine Symposium. Southlake, TX, March 19, 2016.

Trowbridge CA. “Don’t stop believing in I.C.E. as a treatment for acute injury? An evidence based review”. National Society of Sports Physiotherapy (SONAFE) 2015 Congress. Florianopolis, Brazil. November 1, 2015.

Trowbridge CA. Why we I.C.E. for inflammation – An Evidence Based Review. SWATA Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposium. Frisco, TX. July 18, 2015.

Trowbridge CA. Patterned Electrical Nerve Stimulation. NATA Annual Meeting. St. Louis, MO. June 2015.

Hansen DR and Trowbridge CA. Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation on Muscle Strength and Power in Healthy Normals. NATA Annual Meeting. St. Louis, MO. June 2015.

Morris VA, Trowbridge CA, Resch JD. The reliability of SCAT3. NATA Annual Meeting. St. Louis, MO. June 2015.

Trowbridge CA, Krawietz P, and Decker M. Ankle Injury – Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation. Baylor Orthopedic and Spine Hospital Arlington Sports Medicine Conference. June 20, 2014.

Trowbridge CA. Evidence Based Review of Therapeutic Ultrasound and TENS for pain relief. Baylor Institute for Rehabilitation: Evidence Based Practice in Sports Medicine: Tools for Clinical Application. June 14, 2014.

Trowbridge CA. Shortwave diathermy: An old tool with a new look. NATA Annual Meeting. Las Vegas, NV. June 2013.

Trowbridge CA. Deep and Superficial Quadriceps Heating Using Continuous Shortwave Diathermy at Two Different Duty Cycles. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Annual Meeting. Las Vegas, NV.  June 2013.

Student Research in the TIR Lab

Sponsored Student Research

Harkins J. A comparison of two fatigue protocols on core strength.
Spring 2016

Alderman E. Use of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation to reduce arthrogenic muscle inhibition in post-surgical knees: A case series.
Spring 2016

Hernandez M, Abowd M, O’Reilly K. Tissue temperature changes in response to Hyperice® and other traditional cryotherapy techniques.
Spring 2015

Hansen D. The acute effects of patterned electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) on quadriceps muscle torque production during repeated contractions.
May 2014

Student Research

Mentored Projects, Fall 2017

  • THE EFFECTS OF HEAT ON CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS
    Author: Bonnie Pyron
    Faculty sponsor: Cindy Trowbridge, PhD, ATC, LAT
  • A PILOT STUDY COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENTS AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXERCISE IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC KNEE OR ACHILLES PAIN
    Author: Brittnee Harder, LAT
    Faculty Sponsor: Cindy Trowbridge PhD, ATC, LAT
  • THE COMPARISON OF THERMAL MODALITIES AND MANUAL THERAPY FOR NON-SPECIFIC NECK PAIN
    Authors: Alyssa Contreraz, Abigail Graham, Zebria Lawson, Drew Patterson, Taylor Smith, Natasha Hernandez-Vazquez
    Faculty sponsor: Cindy Trowbridge, PhD, ATC, LAT
  • QUADRICEP INHIBITION IN REGARDS TO STRENGTH OF AFFECTED KNEE COMPARED TO THE NON-AFFECTED KNEE AFTER KNEE SURGERY IN SHORT AND LONG-TERM AS MEASURED BY TORQUE
    Authors: Alyssa Bragg, Alexis Stubblefield, Chase Newby, Edgar Castro, Dominique Bettis, Prisca Shaka
    Faculty sponsor: Dr. Yilla, Dr. Trowbridge, Dr. Ricard
  • FOAM-ROLLING AND CRYOTHERAPY: A COMPARISON BETWEEN TREATMENTS IN REDUCING DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS
    Authors: Kristen Bryant, Ozioma Ejim, Hana Qaddura, Anthony Webber, Justin Whisenhunt
    Faculty sponsor: Dr. Abu B. Yilla, Dr. Cynthia Trowbridge, Dr. Mark Ricard; Brian Prejean, Susie Chung

Spring 2017

  • A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE ELECTRICAL AND MANUAL THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES ON PAIN RELIEF, FUNCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT, AND NECK RANGE OF MOTION RESTORATION IN SUBJECTS WITH MUSCULOSKELETAL NECK PAIN
    Author: Brittnee Harder, LAT
    Faculty sponsor: Cindy Trowbridge, PhD, ATC, LAT
  • A PILOT STUDY COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENTS AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXERCISE IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC KNEE OR ACHILLES PAIN
    Author: Bonnie Pyron
    Faculty Sponsor: Cindy Trowbridge PhD, ATC, LAT
  • THE EFFECTS OF INTERVAL CRYOTHERAPY ON THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS
    Authors: Alyssa Contreraz, Abigail Graham, Zebria Lawson, Drew Patterson, Taylor Smith, Natasha Hernandez-Vazquez
    Faculty sponsor: Cindy Trowbridge, PhD, ATC, LAT
  • EFFECTS OF BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS ON MUSCLE RECOVERY FROM RESISTANCE TRAINING
    Authors: Amy Pace, Brittany Selvera, Haymen Tu, Taylor Brasel, Ana Mota
    Faculty sponsor: Cindy Trowbridge, PhD, ATC, LAT
  • THE EFFECTS OF NO WARM-UP, PASSIVE WARM-UP, AND ACTIVE WARM-UP ON AVERAGE ANEROBIC POWER PRODUCTION
    Authors: Elizabeth Lam, Josiah Parsons, Saul Longoria, Samuel Favela, Quazi Rakin Haque, Arely Herrera
    Faculty sponsor: Cindy Trowbridge, PhD, ATC, LAT

Spring 2016

  • Andazola K et al. The effects of an Alter-G anti-gravity treadmill on pain.
  • Kang L. Physiological responses during a modified Bruce max test in the anti-gravity treadmill.
  • Christian X et al. The effectiveness of PNF and static stretching on hamstring flexibility.
  • Aper J et al. The effects of static and dynamic stretching on the vertical jump.
  • Honors Thesis: Hernandez M. Core stability and hip range of motion changes using three different short-term therapeutic intervention programs.

Spring 2015

  • Alderman E, Huang A. A pilot study investigating the effects of patterned electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) on biceps ad triceps brachii muscle torque.
  • Tarrant K, Garza M, Swain T, Teutsch N, Hernandez M. Improvements in range of motion with passive stretching and myofascial release at the hamstrings.
  • Adams E, Chaffin K, Correa J, Rodriguez Ma, Roman J, Portales J, Rodrigues Mi. A study over exercise intensity outcomes between land, aquatic, and anti-gravity treadmills.

December 2014

  • Hicklen L. The effects of different recovery methods on subjective and objective measures of fatigue.

May 2013

  • Collom R. The variability and reliability of a passive knee stiffness assessment: A pilot study.
  • Mathews M. The effect of patterned electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) on muscular strength in the upper extremity.
  • Christopherson D. The effect of the Compex Sport Elite NMES on blood lactate clearance after a maximal effort cycle ergometer test.

December 2012

  • Collom R. Knee osteoarthritis outcome scores for center for healthy living and longevity participants.
  • Thomas R. Effects of Patterned Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Muscle Torque.
  • Shaw C, Reisdorff C, Haire R, Stafford B, and Ricci A. A comparison of pain-free cervical range of motion between participants experiencing cervical pain and without cervical pain.

May 2012

  • Barber N. The effects of electrical muscle stimulation on muscle strength, power, and size.

December 2011

  • Collom R. The effect of therapeutic heating on physical function scores in people with knee osteoarthritis.
  • Rhodes T et al. The acute effects of different ankle rehabilitation protocols on sensorimotor function in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

May 2011

  • Hester J. Functional movement screen (FMS) predictors: Can high FMS scores be predicted through rnage of motion, strength, and balance measures?
  • Elswick S. Cryotherapy and its effects on shoulder proprioception.
  • Schweitzer M. Deep quadriceps intramuscular temperature with active and passive heating modalities.
Testing in the TIR Lab