RUSSIA AND EURASIA:

A GEO-POLITICAL PROFILE

 

            The following is a brief compilation of information about the political characteristics of the 15 states of the former Soviet Union.   It is being updated on a continual basis.

           

 

 


ARMENIA:                                   

   Size: 11,490 square miles.

   Capital: Yerevan.

   Population: 3.41 million

     (93% Armenian; 3% Azerbaijani;

     2.3% Russian; 1.7% Kurdish).

   Independence: Parliament declares

     sovereignty, Aug. 23, 1990;

     popular referendum approved

     Sept. 21, 1991.

   President: Robert Kocharian, former president of Nagorno-

Karabakh region of Azerbaijan, elected in 2nd round, March

            30, 1998 w/ 59.5% of vote over Communist Party candidate

     Karen Demirchyan who gets 40.5%.

   Parliament: single chamber National Council w/ 131 deputies

     serving 4 year terms; last elected May 30, 1999.

*  Fought war with Azerbaijan over Nagorno Karabakh region, 1988  to 1994, retains de facto control of region.

   Member of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

 

 

AZERBAIJAN:

   Size: 33,340 square miles.                                         

   Capital: Baku.

   Population: 7.57 million

     (82.7% Azerbaijani;

     5.6% Russian; 5.6%

     Armenian; 3.2% Dagestani;

     2.9% other).

   Independence: Parliament declares sovereignty,

  Sept. 23, 1989,       and then full independence,

  Aug. 30, 1991.

   President: Gaidar Aliev, former member of CPSU Politburo; takes

     control from Ebulfez Elcibey in coup, June 18, 1993, runs

            unopposed Oct. 3, 1993; re-elected Oct. 11, 1998 w/ 78.9%

            over Ehtibar Mamedov (Azerbaijan National Independence

            Party) who gets 11.6%.

   Parliament: Milli Mejlis (National Assembly) w/ 125 deputies

     serving 5 year terms; last elected Nov. 5, 2000, heavily

     manipulated by government.

   Inactive member of CIS; founding member of GUUAM.

 

     Administrative Units of Azerbaijan

 

     Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic:

       Size: 2,120 square miles.      Capital: Nakhichevan.

       Population: 295,000 (primarily Azerbaijani).

 

     Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Region:

       Size: 1,700 square miles.      Capital: Stepanakert.

       Population: 188,000 (75.9% Armenian; 23% Azerbaijani);

 *     Secessionist movement seeks unification with Armenia.

 

 

Photo Not
AvailableBELARUS:

   Size: 80,134 square miles.        

   Capital: Minsk

   (also capital of the CIS).

   Population: 10.2 million

     (79.4% Belarussian; 11.9% Russian;

     4.2% Polish; 2.4% Ukranian; 1.4%

     Jewish).

   Independence: Supreme Soviet declares sovereignty, July 27, 

  1990, and full independence Aug. 25, 1991.

   President: Alexandr Lukashenko, elected July 10, 1994 with 80%

     of vote; term extended by 2 years until year 2001 by

     referendum on Nov. 24, 1996 which passes with 70.5% of votes

     cast (84% of eligible voters).

   Parliament: single chamber Supreme Soviet w/ 260 deputies

     serving 5 year terms; election status in doubt.

   Founding member of CIS; member of Union of Russia and Belarus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESTONIA:                                  

   Size: 17,413 square miles.

   Capital: Tallinn.                                            

   Population: 1.6 million                                   

     (61.5% Estonian; 30.3% Russian;

     3.17% Ukrainian; 1.8% Belarusian;

     3.23% other).

   Independence: Parliament first

     enacts sovereignty, May 18, 1989,

     and then full ind., March 30, 1990;

    approved by 79% of voters

     in popular plebiscite, March 3, 1991.

   President: Lennart Meri, elected by parliament,

   Oct. 5, 1992,

     re-elected Sept. 20, 1996 by Est. electoral college (196-

     126-44) both times over former pres. and former First Sec. of

     Estonian CP, Arnold Ruutel.

   Parliament: single chamber Riigikogu w/ 101 deputies serving

     3 or 4 year terms (not constitutionally mandated); last

     elected March 5, 1995.

   Not a member of CIS.

 

 

 

Photo Not
Available
GEORGIA:

   Size: 27,000 square miles.

   Capital: Tbilisi.

   Population: 5.5 million

     (68.8% Georgian; 9% Armenian;

     7.4% Russian; 5.1% Azerbaijani;

     3.2% Ossetian; 1.7% Abkhazian).

   Independence: Popular referendum

    approved by nearly unanimous vote, March 3, 1991; parliament

    votes for independence, April 9, 1991;

   President: Eduard Shevardnadze, initially appointed head of

     military council (March 9, 1992) wins 90% endorsement in

     single candidate popular referendum, Oct. 11, 1992; wins

     first contested election w/ 70% of vote over former

            CP leader Dzhumber Patiashvili, Nov. 5, 1995; wins

     re-elecion April 9, 2000 w/ 79.8% of vote over

     Patiashvili (16.7%).

   Parliament: single chamber legislature w/ 235 deputies

     serving 4 year terms; last elected Oct. 30 and Nov. 14, 1999.

   Member of CIS (not all organizational aspects); founding

     member of GUUAM.

    

     Administrative Units of Georgia

 

     Abkhazian Autonomous Republic:

       Size: 3,320 square miles.      Capital: Sukhumi

       Population: 521,000 (17.1% Abkhazian; 43.9% Georgian;

                   16.4% Russian).

*      Currently under control of Abkhaz separatist movement

       supported by Russian troops

 

     Adjarian Autonomous Republic:

       Size: 1,160 square miles.      Capital: Batumi.

       Population: 375,000 (80.1% Georgian; 9.8% Russian;

                   4.6% Armenian).

 

     South Ossetian Autonomous Region:

       Size: 1,505 square miles.      Capital: Tskhinvali.

       Population: 98,000 (66.4% Ossetian; 28.8% Georgian).

*      Separatist movement supported by both Russians

       and North Ossetians.

 

 

KAZAKSTAN:

   Size: 1,049,155 square miles.

Photo Not
Available   Capital: Astana (formerly

     Tselinograd).

   Population: 16.5 million

     (41.9% Kazak; 37% Russian; 5.2%

     Ukrainian; 4.7% German;

     2.1% Uzbek; 2% Tatar; 7.1% “other”,

     including over 100 nationalities).

   Independence: Parl. declares sovereignty, Oct. 25, 1990, and

     ind. Dec. 16, 1991.

   President: Nursultan Nazarbeyev, former First Sec. of Kazak

     CP; elected Chairman of Kazak Supreme Soviet, Feb. 22, 1990;

     only candidate in popular vote, Dec. 1, 1991; term extended

     until 2000 in popular referendum on April 29, 1995, but stands

     for re-election Jan. 10, 1999, wins 79.8% of vote over

     Serikbolsyn Abdilin who gets 11.7%.

   Parliament: Senate w/ 47 indirectly-elected members (elected

     Dec. 5, 1995), and Majlis w/ 67 deputies serving 4 year

            terms; last elected Oct. 10, 1999.

   Member of CIS.

 

 

KYRGYZSTAN:

Photo Not
Available   Size: 76,470 square miles.

   Capital: Bishkek.

   Population: 4.856 million[1]

     (59% Kyrgyz; 17% Russian; 14%

     Uzbek; 2.5% Ukrainian; 2.4%

     German; 2% Tatar; 1999 census).

   Independence: Parl. declares

     sovereignty, Dec. 12, 1990; parliament

     votes for full ind. by vote of 263 to 2, Aug. 31, 1991;

   President: Askar Akaev, non communist, elected by parliament,

     Oct. 1990; re-elected w/ 74.2% of vote to Omurbek Tekebaev

            who gets 13.89%; turnout 74%.

   Parliament: Jogorku Kenesh w/ 105 deputies total; 35 serve

     in Assembly of Legislatures, 70 serve in Assembly of

     Representatives for 5 year terms; last elected

     Feb. 5, 1995.

   Member of CIS.

 

 

Photo Not
AvailableLATVIA:

   Size: 24,595 square miles.

   Capital: Riga.

   Population: 2.73 million

     (51.8% Latvian; 33.8% Russian;

     4.5% Belarussian; 3.4%

     Ukrainian; 2.3% Polish; 4.2% other).

   Independence: Parl. declares sovereignty, July 29, 1989, full

     ind., May 4, 1990; popular plebiscite for ind. by 87.5%,

     March 3, 1991.

   President: Vaira Vike-Freiberga, former Canadian citizen and

            returned emigre, elected by parliament, June 17, 1999;

            serves 4 year term;

   Parliament: single-chamber Saeima w/ 100 deputies serving

     4 year terms; last elected Oct. 3, 1998.

   Not a member of CIS.

 

 

LITHUANIA:

Photo Not
Available   Size: 25,170 square miles.

   Capital: Vilnius.

   Population: 3.81 million

     (80% Lithuanian; 8.6% Russian;

     7.7% Polish; 3.6% other).

   Independence: Supreme Soviet declares

     sovereignty, May 18, 1989, vote of 124 to 6 for full ind.,

     March 11, 1990; popular referendum approved, Feb. 9, 1991.

   President: Valdas Adamkus, former American citizen and

            returned emigre, wins directly-elected presidency, Feb. 4,

            1998 w/ 50.3% of vote over former Prosecutor General

     Arturas Paulauskas who gets 49.7%; serves 4 year term.

   Parliament: single chamber Seimas w/ 141 deputies serving

     4 year terms; last elected Nov. 10, 1996.

   Not a member of CIS.

 

 

MOLDOVA:

Photo Not
Available   Size: 13,000 square miles.

   Capital: Chisinau (Kishinev).

   Population: 4.45 million

     (64.5% Moldovan; 13.8%

     Ukrainian; 13% Russian;

     3.5% Gagauzi; 2% Bulgarian;

     1.5% Jewish; 1.7% other).

   Independence: Parl. votes for sovereignty, June 21, 1990, full

     ind., Aug. 27, 1991.

   President: Petru Lucinschi, former member of CPSU Secretariat,

     later speaker of Mol. parl., defeats Pres. Mircea Snegur

     in general election on Dec. 1, 1996, 54% to 46%.

   Parliament: single chamber legislature w/ 101 deputies

     serving 4 year terms; last elected March 22, 1998.

   Russian separatists control Trans Dniestr region,

     supported by Russian army, communists, Cossacks;

   Member of CIS; founding member of GUUAM

 

 

RUSSIA:

Photo Not
Available   Size: 6.6 million square miles.

   Capital: Moscow.

   Population: 144,990,000[2]

     (approximately 81.5% Russian; 3.8%

     Tatar; 3% Ukrainian; 1.2% Chuvash;

     10.5% other);

   Independence: Supreme Soviet declares sovereignty over its

     territory and natural resources, June 8, 1990.

   President: Vladimir Putin, appointed acting president by

            Boris Yeltsin who resigns on Dec. 31, 1999; elected w/

            52% of vote over CPRF’s Gennadii Zyuganov who gets 29%,

            March 26, 2000.

   Parliament: Federal Assembly divided into Federation

     Council w/ 176 members (indirectly elected or appointed),

     and State Duma w/ 450 members serving for 4 year terms;

     last elected Dec. 19, 1999.

   Founding member of CIS.

 

   The Russian Republics:

 

            Republic of Adygea:

              Size: 1,150 square miles.    Capital: Maikop.

       Population: 432,000;

       President: Aslan Dzharimov, re-elected Jan. 12, 1997 w/

                57.9% of vote; turnout 56.2%.

       Chairman of State Council: Yevgenii Salov.

 

            Republic of Altai:

              Size: 35,740 square miles.   Capital: Gorno-Altaysk.

              Population: 192,000;

       Chairman of Government: Vladilen Volkov (elected

         by legislature 8-19-97 upon death of predecessor).

       Chairman of State Assembly: Daniil Tabaev

 

     Republic of Bashkortostan:

       Size: 55,430 square miles.   Capital: Ufa.

       Population: 3.95 million (24.3% Bashkirian; 40.3% Russian;

               24.5% Tatar; 3.2% Chuvash);

       President: Murtaza Rakhimov (elected Dec. 12, 1993; re-

                elected w/ 73% of vote June 14, 1998 over Rif Kazak-

                kulov who gets 9.3%; turnout nearly 70%),

       Chairman of House of Representatives of State Assembly:

                  Munnirais Ishmuratov.

 

     Republic of Buryatia:

       Size: 135,650 square miles.  Capital: Ulan Ude.

       Population: 1.04 million (23% Buryat; 72% Russian);

       President: Leonid Potapov, elected June 30, 1994, re-

                elected June 21, 1998 w/ 63% of vote over Vladimir

                Saganov who gets 6.5%;

       Chairman of Peoples Hural: Mikhail Semenov.

    

     Chechen Republic (Chechnya):

       Size: 7,350 square miles.    Capital: Grozny.

       Population, pre war: 1.27 million (52.9% Chechen; 29.1%

         Russian; 11.7% Ingush);

*      Independence: declared Nov. 2, 1991, Russian troops battle

         insurgents, Dec. 1994-Aug. 1996, forced to withdraw;

                2nd Russian invasion, Aug. 1999.

       President: Aslan Maskhadov, elected Jan. 27, 1997 w/

                59.3% of vote over Field Commander Shamil Basaev who

                gets 23.5%, and Acting Pres. Zelimkhan Yandarbiev who

                gets 10.1%; turnout 79.4%.

       Chairman of Supreme Council: Amin Osmaev

 

     Chuvash Republic:

       Size: 7,064 square miles.    Capital: Cheboksary.

       Population: 1.33 million (68.4% Chuvash; 26% Russian;

         2.9% Tatar; 1.6% Mordovian);

       President: Nikolai Fedorov (NDR), elected Dec. 26, 1993,

                re-elected Dec. 28, 1998 w/ 57% of vote over Valentin

                Shurchanov (CPRF) who gets 34%; turnout 60%.

       Chairman of State Council: Valentin Shurchanov.

 

     Republic of Dagestan:

       Size: 19,416 square miles.   Capital: Makhachkala.

       Population: 1.79 million (25.7% Avartsy; 15.2% Dargintsy;

         12.4% Kumyki; 11.6% Lezginy; 11.6% Russian; 5.1% Laki;

         4.4% Tabasarany; 4% Azerbaijani);

       Chairman of State Council: Aleksandr Volkov (O), elected

                by parl. April 20, 1999;

       Chairman of People’s Assembly: Mukhu Aliev, elected by

         Supreme Soviet, Aug. 16, 1994; 

       

     Ingush Republic (Ingushetia):

       Size: no exact figures       Capital: Nazran (new capital

                being built at Magas)

       Population: 270,000

       President: Maj. Gen. Ruslan Aushev, elected Feb. 27, 1994,

                re-elected March 1, 1998 (pre-term) w/ 66.5% of vote

                over Issa Kostoyev who gets 13.36%; turnout 64%.

       Chairman of People’s Assembly: Ruslan Pliev.

        

     Kabardino Balkaria Republic:

       Size: 4,825 square miles.    Capital: Nalchik.

       Population: 760,000 (45.6% Kabardinian; 35.1% Russian;

         9% Balkar);

       President: Valerii Kokov, elected Jan. 9, 1992,

         re-elected Jan. 12, 1997 w/ 99% of vote;

       Chairman of Council of Representatives of Parliament:

         Makhmud Zhaboev.

 

     Republic of Kalmykia Khalmg Tangc:

       Size: 29,300 square miles.   Capital: Elista.

       Population: 322,000 (41.5% Kalmyk; 42.6% Russian; 6.6%

         Kazakh, Chechen, and Dagestani);

       President: Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, unopposed reelection

         (85% of vote) for 7 year term, Oct. 15, 1995,

       Chairman of Parliament: Konstantin Maksimov.

 

     Karachaevo Cherkessia Republic:

       Size: 5,442 square miles.    Capital: Cherkessk.

       Population: 418,000;

       President: Vladimir Semyonov, elected May 17, 1999 w/

                75% of vote over Stanislav Derev who gets 18%;

                turnout 63%.

       Chairman of People’s Assembly: Igor Ivanov.

 

     Republic of Karelia:

       Size: 172,400 square miles.  Capital: Petrozavodsk.

       Population: 792,000 (71.3% Russian; 11.1% Karelian;

         8.1% Belarussian; 3.2% Ukrainian; 2.7% Finnish);

       Chairman of Government: Sergei Katanandov (NDR, LDPR,

                Luzhkov backed) elected May 17, 1998 w/ 49.5% over

                incumbent Viktor Stepanov (CPRF-backed) who gets 43.4%.

       Chairman of Chamber of Representatives of Legislative

         Assembly: Vladimir Shilnikov (CPRF).

 

     Republic of Khakassia:

       Size: 23,855 square miles.   Capital: Abakan.

       Population: 569,000.

       Chairman of Council of Ministers: Aleksei Lebed

         elected Dec. 22, 1996 in 2nd round w/ 71% of vote

                re-elected Dec. 24, 2000 w/ 73% of vote

         (the republic does not have a president);

       Chairman of Supreme Council: Vladimir Shtygashev.

      

     Republic of Komi:

       Size: 164,540 square miles.  Capital: Syktyvkar.

       Population: 1.26 million (25.3% Komi; 56.7% Russian;

         10.7% Ukrainian and Belarussian);

       Head (not pres.) of Republic and govt.: Yuri Spiridonov

         elected May 8, 1994, re-elected Dec. 1, 1997 w/ 62%

                of vote over Rita Chistokhodova (CPRF) who gets 21%;

                turnout 48%.

       Chairman of State Council: Vladimir Torlopov.

 

     Republic of Mari El:

       Size: 8,955 square miles.    Capital: Yoshkar Ola.

       Population: 750,000 (43.5% Mari; 47.5% Russia;, 5.8% Tatar;

         1.1% Chuvash);

       President: Vyacheslav Kislitsyn (NPSR) elected Jan. 4,

         1997 in 2nd round over Leonid Markelov (LDPR) who gets

         36%; turnout 63%;

       Chairman of State Assembly: Anatolii Smirnov.

     Republic of Mordovia:

       Size: 10,110 square miles.   Capital: Saransk.

       Population: 964,000 (34.2% Mordovian; 59.7% Russian;

         4.6% Tatar).

       Head of the Republic: Nikolai Merkushkin elected

         Sept. 22, 1995, re-elected w/ 96.6% of vote

                Feb. 19, 1998.

       Chairman of State Assembly: Valerii Kechkin.

 

     Republic of North Ossetia Alaniya (as of Nov. 10, 1994):

       Size: 3,088 square miles.    Capital: Mozdok.

       Population: 634,000 (50.5% Ossetian; 33.9% Russian;

         8.1% Ingush and other Caucasian peoples);

        Factional conflict between Ossetians and Ingush, Oct. 1992;

       President: Aleksandr Dzasokhov, elected Jan. 19, 1998

                w/ 75% of vote over incumbent Akhsarbek Galazov who

                gets less than 15%; turnout 70%.

       Chairman of Parliament: Vyacheslav Parinov.

 

            Republic of Sakha (Yakutia):

              Size: 1,197,760 square miles.  Capital: Yakutsk.

              Population: 1.08 million (36.9% Yakut; 50.4% Russian;

          22% other “Northern peoples”);

              President: Mikhail Nikolaev (I); elected Dec. 22, 1996

          w/ 60% of vote over Artur Alekseev who gets 26%;

          turnout 64%.

       Chairman of Chamber of Republic of State Assembly:

          Egor Larionov.

 

     Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan):

       Size: 26,250 square miles.   Capital: Kazan.

       Population: 3.64 million (47.7% Tatar; 44% Russian;

         5.9% Chuvash, Mordovian, and Udmurt);

       Independence: referendum voted for by 61% to 37%,

         March 21, 1992 (not recognized by Russia);

       President: Mintimer Shaimiyev, re-elected w/ no oppo-

         sition, 24 March 1996; turnout 75%.

       Chairman of State Council: Farid Mukametshin.

 

     Republic of Tyva (Tuva):

       Size: 65,810 square miles.   Capital: Kyzyl.

       Population: 309,000 (60.5% Tuvans; 36.2% Russians);

       President: Sherig ool Oorzhak,elected March 1992;

                re-elected March 15, 1997 w/ 70% of vote over Kaadyr

                ool Bicheldei.

       Chairman of Parliament: Kaadyr ool Bicheldei.

 

     Udmurt Republic:

       Size: 16,250 square miles.   Capital: Izhevsk.

       Population: 1.6 million (32.2% Udmurt; 58.3% Russian;

         6.6% Tatar);

       President: Aleksandr Volkov (originally elected Chairman

                of State Council, April 19, 1995), elected Oct. 15,

                2000 over Pavel Vershinin who gets 23.9%;

       Chairman of State Council of Government:

      

   Cities of federal significance:

     Moscow            Yuri Luzhkov (O), mayor; elected June 19,

                         1996, re-elected Dec. 19, 1999 w/ 71.5%

                          of vote over Sergei Kirienko who gets

                          11.4%.

     St. Petersburg    Vladimir Yakovlev, governor; elected

                         June 2, 1996; re-elected May 14, 2000

                          w/ 72.7% over Igor Artemev (Y, E) who

                          gets 17.7%; turnout 46%

 

   Oblasts:                      Name/Title/Election Data      

     Amur              Anatolii Belonogov, head of admin,;

                         elected Sept. 22, 1996 over incumbent

                         Yurii Lyashko (appointed by Yeltsin June

                         1996); 36% turnout;

     Arkhangelsk       Anatolii Yefremov (I), head of admin.;

                         elected Dec. 22, 1996 in second round w/

                         58% of vote over Yurii Guskov who gets 33%.

     Astrakhan         Anatolii P. Guzhvin, head of admin.

                             (incumbent), elected Dec. 8, 1996 w/

                              52% of vote over Vyacheslav Zvolinskii

                         who gets 39%, re-elected Dec. 3, 2000.

     Belgorod          Yevgenii S. Savchenko, head of admin.,

                             elected May 31, 1999 w/ 53% of vote

                             over Vladimir Zhirinovskii (LDPR) who

                               gets 17%.

     Bryansk           Yurii Lodkin (NPSR), gov.; elected Dec. 8,

                             1996 w/ 53% of vote over incumbent

                            Aleksandr Semernev (appt. by Yeltsin June

                             1996) who gets 26%; turnout 50%.

     Chelyabinsk       Petr Sumin (NPSR), gov.; elected Dec. 22,

                         1996, re-elected Dec. 24, 2000 w/

                         58.77% of vote over Mikhail Grishankov

                         who gets 16.68%.

     Chita             Ravil Geniatulin, gov.; appt. by

                         Yeltsin Feb. 1996, re-elected Oct. 29,

                          2000 w/ 57.5% over Col.-Gen. Viktor

                          Voitenko who gets 16%.

     Irkutsk           Boris Govorin, gov., elected July 27,

                         1997 w/ 50.34% of vote over Sergei Lev-

                         chenko (CPRF) who gets 18.8%, and

                                Viktor Mashinskii (Popular Power) who

                                 gets 14%; turnout 46%.

     Ivanovo           Vladislav Tikhomirov, gov.; elected

                         Dec. 1. 1996 over Sergei Sirotkin

                         (LDPR), 50.1% to 24%; turnout 47%.

     Kaliningrad       Leonid Gorbenko, gov, elected Oct. 20,

                         1996 w/ 50% of vote in runoff over

                          incumbent Yurii S. Matochkin (NDR),

                         who gets 41%; turnout 43%.

     Kaluga            Valerii Sudarenkov (NPSR), head of admin.,

                         elected Nov. 10, 1996 in runoff w/

                           63.5% of vote over incumbent Oleg

                             Savchenko who gets 31%; turnout 41%.

     Kamchatka         Vladimir A. Biryukov, gov.; elected w/

                         61% in second round of voting, Dec. 1,

                         1996 over Boris Oleinikov who gets 28%;

                         turnout 34%.

     Kemerovo          Aman Tuleev, CPRF, gov; appt. by Yeltsin

                         July 1, 1997, re-elected Oct. 19, 1997

                           w/ 94.6% of vote; turnout 53%.

     Kirov             Vladimir Sergeenkov (Popular Power Duma

                         faction), elected Oct. 20, 1996 w/ 50%

                          (turnout 54%), re-elected w/ 58.48% of

                           vote, March 26, 2000.

     Kostroma          Viktor Shershunov (NPSR), head of admin.;

                         elected Dec. 22, 1996, re-elected

                         Dec. 24, 2000 in 2nd round w/ 63% of

                          vote over Boris Korobov who gets 24.61%.

     Kurgan            Oleg Bogomolov (NPSR), gov. elected Dec.

                         8, 1996, re-elected w/ 50.5% Dec. 11,

                            2000.

     Kursk             Aleksandr Mikhailov (CPRF), gov., elected

                             Nov. 5, 2000, gets 55.5% over former

                             FSB Gen. Viktor Surzhikov (supported by

                              Kremlin) who gets 37.9%.

     Leningrad         Valerii Serdyukov, elected w/ 30% of vote

                         on Sept. 19, 1999 over former gov.

                            Vadim Gustov (CPRF-supported), who gets

                                       23% of vote; 42% turnout.

     Lipetsk           Oleg Korolev (CPRF, Y-supported), elected

                            April 12, 1998 w/ 79% of vote over

                            incumbent Mikhail T. Narolin who gets

                            14%.

     Magadan           Valentin Tsvetkov (supported by NPSR,

                         Yabloko, LDPR and R-NC), elected to 2nd

                          term Nov. 5, 2000 w/ 62.8% of vote over

                           Vladimir Butkeev (Russia’s Regions) who

                            gets 14.18%.

     Moscow            Gen. Boris Gromov (OVR), elected Jan. 9,

                               2000 w/ 48.09% of vote over Duma speaker

                             Gennadii Seleznev (CPRF);

     Murmansk          Yurii Evdokimov (KRO), gov.; elected on

                              Oct. 20, 1996 w/44% of vote; re-elected

                              w/ 85.9% of vote, March 26, 2000.

     Nizhnii Novgorod  Ivan Sklyarov, gov.; elected w/

                         52% of vote in runoff on July 13,

                         1997 over CPRF Duma deputy Gennadii

                         Khodyrev who gets 42%; 49% turnout.

     Novgorod          Mikhail M. Prusak, head of admin.; re-

                            elected Sept. 5, 1999 w/ 91% of vote;

                             turnout 50%.

     Novosibirsk       Viktor Tolokonskii, gov.,; elected in

                            2nd round on Jan. 9, 2000 w/ 44.32% of

                           vote over Ivan Starikov who gets 42.17%;

     Omsk              Leonid K. Polezhaev, gov.; re-elected

                            Sept. 5, 1999 w/ 57% of vote over

                            Aleksandr Kravets (CPRF) who gets 26%;

                             turnout 50+%.

     Orel              Egor S. Stroev, head of admin.; re-elected

                          Oct. 26, 1997 w/ 97% of vote; no mean-

                          ingful opposition.

     Orenburg          Aleksei Chernyshev (CPRF), head of admin.,

                             elected Dec. 27, 2000 in runoff w/ 52.8%

                            of vote over incumbent Vladimir Elagin

                            (E) who gets 43.3%.

     Penza             Vasilii Bochkarev, gov.; elected April 12,

                           1998 w/ 59.5% of vote over Yurii Lyzhin

                           (CPRF) who gets 16%.

     Perm              Yurii Trutnev, head of admin.; elected

                             Dec. 3, 2000 w/ 50%+ over incumbent

                              Gennadii V. Igumnov (I).               

     Pskov             Yevgenii Mikhailov becomes first LDPR

                         governor Nov. 3, 1996 w/ 56% of vote

                         over incumbent Vladislav N. Tumanov who

                         gets 37%; turnout in 1st round 51.7%,

                         second round 60.2%.

     Rostov            Vladimir F. Chub, head of admin. (appt.

                            by Yeltsin Aug. 1991) elected with 62%

                         of vote on Sept. 29, 1996 over predeces-

                         sor Leonid Ivanchenko (CPRF-supported)

                         who gets 32% of vote; 42% turnout;

     Ryazan            Vyacheslav Lyubimov (NPSR), gov.; elected

                         Dec. 22, 1996 w/ 56% of vote over incum-

                         bent Igor Ivlev (appt. by Yeltsin Oct.

                         15, 1996) who gets 38.36%; turnout in

                         1st round 52%.

     Sakhalin          Igor P. Farkhutdinov (pro-Unity), gov;

                            elected Oct. 20, 1996, re-elected Oct. 22,

                             2000 w/ 56.5% over Fedor Sidorenko who

                             gets 21.4%.

     Samara            Konstantin A. Titov, gov.,; elected

                         Dec. 1, 1996 defeating Valentin

                         Romanov (CPRF), 63% to 32%; turnout

                         52%; resigns April 4 , 2000.

     Saratov           Dmitrii Ayatskov (I appt. by Yeltsin

                         April, 1996; member of R-NC movement);

                         elected Sept. 1, 1996 w/ 81% (turnout

                           60%); re-elected March 26, 2000 w/

                           75% of vote.

     Smolensk          Aleksandr Prokhorov, head of admin. (CPRF,

                                 admin. backing), elected May 17, 1998 w/

                                67.3% over Anatolii E. Glushenkov (I) who

                                 gets 26.5%.

     Sverdlovsk        Eduard E. Rossel, gov., elected Aug. 20,

                               1995; re-elected Sept. 13, 1999 w/ 64%

                                 of vote over Aleksandr Burkov who gets

                                  27%; turnout 36%.

     Tambov            Oleg Betin (O-supported), elected

                               Dec. 27, 2000 w/ 50.34% of vote over

                                incumbent Aleksandr I. Ryabov (CPRF)

                                 who gets 44.16%.

     Tomsk             Viktor M. Kress (NDR, appt. by Yeltsin in

                           1991), governor,; elected Sept. 19, 1999

                             w/ 73% of vote; turnout 49%.

     Tula              Vasilii Starodubtsev (Agrarian), gov.

                            elected March 23, 1997 w/ 62% of vote.

     Tver              Vladimir I. Platov, gov.; re-elected in

                                2nd round, Jan. 9, 2000 over Vladimir

                               Bayunov (CPRF);

     Tyumen            Leonid Y. Roketskii, head of admin.; appt.

                         by Yeltsin Feb. 1993; elected Jan. 12,

                         1997 w/ 59% of vote over Sergei

                         Atroshenko who gets 33%; turnout 56%

                            but both Khanty-Mantsi and Yamalo-

                           Nenets AO boycott election.

     Ulyanovsk         Vladimir Shamanov (Lt. Gen., commander in

                         Chechnya, supported by Kremlin, E,

                         KPRF), gov; elected Dec. 24, 2000

                         w/ 56% of vote over incumbent Yurii F.

                         Goryachev who gets 23%.

     Vladimir          Nikolai Vinogradov (NPSR), head of admin. 

                           elected Dec. 8, 1996, re-elected w/ 66%

                              of vote Dec. 11, 2000.

     Volgograd         Nikolai Maksyuta (NPSR), head of admin.;

                         elected Dec. 29, 1996 w/ 51% of vote

                         over incumbent Ivan P. Shabunin who gets

                         44.

     Vologda           Vyacheslav Pozgalev, gov.; elected Oct. 6,

                             1996, re-elected Dec. 19, 1999 w/ 83%

                              of vote.

     Voronezh          Vladimir Kulakov (FSB regional director),

                         gov.; elected Dec. 24, 2000 over incum-

                         bent Ivan Shabanov (NPSR).

     Yaroslavl         Anatolii I. Lisitsyn, gov.; elected in

                            1995, re-elected Dec. 19, 1999 w/ 65%

                          of vote.

 

   Autonomous oblasts:

     Birobidzhan       Nikolai M. Volkov, gov.; elected Oct.

                         20, 1996 w/ 72% of vote (turnout 42%),

                             re-elected w/ 56.76% of vote, March 26,

                             2000.

 

   Krais:

     Altai             Aleksandr Surikov (NPSR), gov.; elected

                         Oct. 20, 1996 w/ 49% of vote (turnout

                         56%), re-elected w/ 77.41% of vote,

                          March 26, 2000.

     Khabarovsk        Viktor I. Ishaev, head of admin.; elected

                         Dec. 8, 1996, re-elected Dec. 11, 2000

                           w/ 77% of vote over Valentin Tsoi who

                            gets 7%.

     Krasnodar         Aleksandr Tkachev (Agro-Industrial), gov.;

                               elected Dec. 3, 2000.

     Krasnoyarsk       Aleksandr Lebed (I) elected May 17, 1998

                               w/ 57% of vote over Valerii M. Zubov (I)

                               who gets 38%; turnout 63%.

     Primorsk          Yevgenii I. Nazdratenko, gov.; re-elected

                              Dec. 20, 1999 w/ 80% of vote over

                               Aleksandr Kirilichev who claims voter

                               fraud.

     Stavropol         Aleksandr Chernogorov (CPRF), gov.;

                         elected Nov. 17, 1996 in runoff w/

                         55% over incumbent Petr P. Marchenko

                         40%; turnout in 1st round 45%, 2nd

                         round 65%.

 

   Autonomous okrugs:

     Agin-Buryat       Bair Zhamsuev (RR), governor;

                         elected Feb. 23, 1997 w/44.5% of vote,

                         re-elected Oct. 29, 2000 w/ 95% of vote.

                       Vladimir Rabdanov, chairman of Duma

     Chukotka          Roman Abramovich (I), gov.;

                         elected Dec. 24, 2000 w/ 90% of vote

                         over Vladimir Yetylin who gets 3%.

     Evenk             Aleksandr Bokovikov (CPRF), elected

                             March 16, 1997 w/ 51% of vote over

                            incumbent Anatolii M. Yakimov who gets

                           650 votes less.

     Khanty-Mansi      Aleksandr V. Filipenko, incumbent, elect-

                                       ed Oct. 27, 1996 w/ 72% (both admin.

                                   and comm. support him) (turnout 47%);

                                     re-elected w/ 91.12% of vote, March 26,

                                    2000.

     Komi-Permyak      Nikolai A. Poluyanov, gov. (supported

                         by admin. and PPUR) reelected Nov. 17,

                         1996 w/ 71% of vote over Anatolii

                         Fedoseev who gets 17%; turnout 57%.

     Koryak            Valentina Bronevich, first female gov.

                         (backed by R-NC), elected Nov. 17, 1996 w/ 

                        46% of vote over incumbent Sergei

                         Leushkin who gets 25%; turnout 58%.

     Nenets         Vladimir Butov, gov., re-elected Jan. 14, 2001 

                          w/ 68% of vote over Aleksandr Shmakov

                        who gets 10.27% of vote

     Taimyr (Dolgano Nenets)  

                       Gennadii P. Nedelin (I), head of admin.;

                         elected Dec. 22, 1996 w/ 64% of vote

                         over G. Subbotkin who gets 12%; turn-

                         out 30%.

     Ust-Orda Buryat   Valerii Maleev (supported by NDR), gov.,

                         elected Nov. 17, 1996 w/ 37% over

                         incumbent Aleksei N. Batagaev who gets

                         26%; turnout 59%.

     Yamalo-Nenetsk    Yurii V. Neelov, head of admin., incum-

                                   bent elected Oct. 13, 1996 w/ 68% (turn-

                                   out 49%); re-elected w/ 89% of vote,

                                    March 26, 2000.

 

Abbreviations: CPRF = Communist Party of the Russian Federation

                      (leader: Gennadi Zyuganov)

                                    E    = Union of Rightist Forces (coalition of New

                                           Force, headed by Sergei Kirienko, Young

                      Russia headed by Boris Nemtsov, Common

                                           Cause headed by Irina Khakamada; also

                                           includes Right Cause headed by Anatolii

                                           Chubais)

               I    = incumbent

               KRO  = Congress of Russian Communities (leader:

                      Aleksandr Lebed)

               LDPR = Liberal Democratic Party of Russia

                      (leader: Vladimir Zhirinovsky)

               NDR  = Our Home is Russia (leader: Viktor

                      Chernomyrdin)

               NPSR = Popular Patriotic Union of Russia

                      (leader: Zyuganov, left alliance)

              O    = Fatherland (“Otechestvo”,

                           leader: Yuri Luzhkov)

               R-NC = Reforms-New Course (leader: Vladimir

                      Shumeiko)

               RR   = Russia’s Regions

               E    = Unity (“E’dinstvo”, pro-Kremlin, leader:

                                                  Sergei Shoigu)

               VR   = All Russia (“Vsya Rossiya”,

                      leader: Yevgenii Primakov)

                 Y    = Yabloko (leader: Grigorii Yavlinsky)

 

 

TAJIKISTAN:

   Size: 55,240 square miles.

Photo Not
Available   Capital: Dushanbe.

   Population: 6.1 million

     (2000 census: 64.9% Tajik;

     25% Uzbek; 3.5% Russian;

     6.6% other).

   Independence: Parliament

     declares sovereignty, Aug. 24,

     1990, and independence, Sept. 9, 1991.

   President: Imomali Rakhmonov, elected chairman of Supreme

     Soviet, Nov. 19, 1992; re-elected Nov. 6, 1999 w/ 97%

            of vote over Davlat Ismonov who gets 2%.

   Parliament: Majlisi Oli consists of 2 chambers; Majlisi

     Mamoyandogan w/ 63 deps. serving 5 year terms (22 by pro-

     portional representation; 41 in single-seat districts);

            last elected Feb. 27 and March 12 2000; Lower chamber is

            Majlisi Milli w/ 33 deps. (25 elected for 5 year term by

            local majlisi deps.; 8 appointed by president).

*  Civil war since 1992, border conflict with Afghanistan

            which requires stationing of CIS/Russian troops.

   Member of CIS.

 

     Administrative Unit of Tajikistan

 

     Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Region:

       Size: 24,590 square miles.      Capital: Khorog.

       Population: 143,000 (83% Tajik; 11% Kyrgyz).

 

 

TURKMENISTAN:

   Size: 186,400 square miles.

Photo Not
Available   Capital: Ashakabad.

   Population: 4.48 million

     (77% Turkmenian; 9.2% Uzbek;

     6.7% Russian; 2% Kazakh;

     5.9% other; Jan. ‘90 census).

   Independence: Parliament declares

     sovereignty, Aug. 22, 1990;

     popular plebiscite approves

     independence by 94%, Oct. 27, 1991.

   President: Saparmurad Niyazov, First Sec. of CP; elected pres.

     by parl., Oct. 1990; term extended until 2002 by popular

     referendum, Jan. 15, 1994.

   Parliament: Khalk Maslakhaty w/ about 100 members serving

     5 year terms, and Medzhlis (Parliament) w/ 50 deputies

     serving 5 year terms; last elected Dec. 11, 1994.

   Member of CIS.

 

 

UKRAINE:

Photo Not
Available   Size: 231,990 square miles.      

   Capital: Kiev.

   Population: 51.8 million

     (73.6% Ukrainian; 22% Russian;

     1% Jewish; 0.8% Belarussian;

     4% other).

   Independence: Parliament declares sovereignty, July 16,

     1990, independence, Aug. 24, 1991; referendum approved

     by 92%, Dec. 1, 1991.

   President: Leonid Kuchma, elected with 52% of popular vote over

     first dem. elected pres. Leonid Kravchuk, July 10, 1994;

            re-elected Nov. 14, 1999 w/ 56.31% of vote to Petr

            Symonenko’s 37.76%.

   Parliament: single chamber Verkhovna Rada w/ 450 deputies

     serving 4 year terms; last elected March 25, 1998.

   Founding Member of CIS; founding member of GUUAM.

 

UZBEKISTAN:

   Size: 172,741 square miles.

Photo Not
Available   Capital: Tashkent.

   Population: 22.1 million

     (71.4% Uzbek; 8.3% Russian;

     4.7% Tajik; 2.4%% Tatar;

     2.1% Karakalpak; 7% other).

   Independence: Parliament declares

     sovereignty, June 20, 1990,

     independence, Aug 31, 1991.

   President: Islam Karimov, elected by parl., March 1990; resigns

     from CPSU Politburo, Aug. 23, 1991.

   Parliament: single chamber Oliy Majlis w/ 150 deputies serving

     5 year terms; last elected Dec. 25, 1994.

   Member of CIS; founding member of GUUAM.

 

   Administrative Unit of Uzbekistan

 

   Karakalpak Autonomous Republic:

     Size: 63,920 square miles.       Capital: Nukus.

     Population: 1.04 million (31.1% Karakalpak, 31.5% Uzbek,

       26.9% Kazakh).

 

 

 

* Indicates separatist movement/civil conflict.

(revised Feb. 20, 2001)



[1]Interfax quoted in RFE/RL Newsline, 7-21-00).

[2]Goskomstat figure as of Nov. 1, 2000; cited in RFE/RL Newsline, 12-27.