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2384 Overview: A Pasta Paradigm
Sentences and Speech Acts
Canonical Sentence Types
Roles of Subordinate Clauses
Five Sentence Functions
- Declaratives: I love pasta.
- Closed Questions: Do you like pasta?
- Open Questions: What kinds of pasta do you like?
- Imperatives: Finish your spaghetti!
- Exclamations: What great manicotti!
Five Speech Acts
- Assertives: Macaroni is easy to cook.
- Directives: Get me two pounds of tagliatelle.
- Expressives: Thanks so much for making spaghetti for me!
- Commissives: I promise I'll fix mac & cheese if you finish your homework.
- Declarations: I hereby name you Pasta Chef of the Month.
Five Canonical Declarative Sentence Types
- Intransitive: On Wednesdays, I bake.
- Transitive: On Wednesdays, I bake penne.
- Ditransitive: I served Susan some penne.
- Subject-Complement: This baked ziti is filling.
- Object-Complement: Chuck's pasta primavera makes me happy.
- Subject: What I like is a nice plate of ragú.
- Object: I love what you cook.
- Complement: You are what you eat.
- Postmodifier of noun (restrictive): Pasta that gets too cold is awful.
- Postmodifier of noun (restrictive with zero relative): I like the angel hair you make.
- Postmodifier of noun (nonrestrictive): Orecchiette, which I can only get at specialty shops, are delicious.
- Adverbial: When you boil pasta, add oil to the water.
- Simple present: I eat ravioli.
- Simple past: I ate shells.
- Present progressive: I am eating ravioli.
- Past progressive: I was eating bowties.
- Perfect: I have eaten a ton of bowties.
- Past perfect: I had eaten two plates of spinach pasta.
- Perfect progressive: I have been eating a lot of linguine.
- Past perfect progressive: I had been eating pasta with squid ink.
- Future with "go": I'm going to fix angel hair with pesto next weekend.
- Modals: I can/could | may/might | will/would | shall/should | must | ought to eat less pasta.
- Imperfect: I used to eat Spaghetti-Os.
- "Do" operator NEGATION: I don't eat them anymore.
- "Do" operator INTERROGATION: Do you ever eat canned pasta?
- "Do" operator CODE: She doesn't like tortelloni. I do.
- "Do" operator EMPHASIS: Yes, I do like stuffed shells.
- Modal operator NEGATION: You shouldn't eat too much pasta.
- Modal operator INTERROGATION: Can I use this onion in the sauce?
- Modal operator CODE: He doesn't have to peel those onions. I will.
- Modal operator EMPHASIS: Yes, you must eat all your tomatoes.
- articles (a, an, the)
- demonstratives (this, that)
- possessives (my, your, his, etc.)
- interrogatives (which, what)
- adjectives (there can be more than one)
- nouns or noun phrases
- -ing participles
- -ed participles
- cardinal or ordinal numerals
- Head noun
- prepositional phrase
- finite relative clause (see above)
- -ing clause
- -ed clause
Mix & match: "The best pasta dishes that you cook"; "My favorite fresh pasta of all"
Form: P + Complement (NP, -ing clause, wh- clause: "for dinner," "for eating pasta," "for when we have company")
Roles of PPs"
Utterances ought to be
- Postmodifier of noun: pasta with parmesan cheese
- Postmodifier of adjective: delicious with parmesan cheese
- Object complement: I turned the tomatoes into a delicious sauce
- Dative: I gave the recipe to my sister
- Genitive: he consistency of the pasta
- Agent: the eggs were cooked by the pasta
- Adverbial: after dinner, we felt sleepy from eating so much pasta
To violate all four in four sentences: "You're looking wide awake this morning. Huh! Guess you were up all night grading papers. If that's what they're calling it these days."
- Maxim of quality: true;
- Maxim of quantity: neither too little nor too much;
- Maxim of relevance: related to the conversation;
- Maxim of manner: orderly, brief, unambiguous
- declension of nouns by number and case: dog, dog's, dogs, dogs'
- conjugation of verbs by number and tense: I take, he takes, I/he took
- verb participles: taking, taken
- grade of adjectives: good, better, best; nice, nicer, nicest
- Manufacture: nylon, quark, google
- Initialism: abbreviation (TV, DVD, USB); acronym (AIDS, laser, radar)
- Clipping: lab, deli; bus, cello, phone; flu, fridge
- Blending: brunch, frappuccino
- Stress shift: digest, insert; conflict, compound
- Conversion: V-N spy; N-V shepherd; A-N comic; A-V dry
- Noun-Centered Compound Noun: N+N bedtime; A+N blackbird V+N hangman or payday; P+N aftereffect
- Verb-Centered Compound Noun: V+N pickpocket; N+V landslide; N+V+er songwriter; V+P breakin
Phonology (click on link for webpage)
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