Contexts for Jackie Robinson

Jackie Robinson was the first African-American player in modern "organized" baseball, playing for the Montreal Royals in 1946 and the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. To provide some context, here are some links to the initial integration of other sports and leagues, and the integration of other institutions and activities, and other hallmarks in the desegregation of the United States.

The focus is on the 20th century. To overgeneralize enormously, integration in the 19th century was almost nonexistent till the Civil War, and then made huge strides in the decade 1865-1875, only to be rolled back to near-complete segregation of the South and de facto segregation in much of the North by the turn of the 20th century. The history of race in the United States in the 20th century is of slow progress toward civil rights in many fields, starting from almost nowhere.