Chapter 3: Questions and their uses
- Allow the respondent considerable freedom in determining the amount and kind of information to offer
- Are broad
- Highly Open Questions
- No restrictions
- Tell me about yourself
- Moderately Opened Questions
- Some restrictions
- Tell me about your family
- Open Questions
- Lots of information
- Easy to answer
- Reveal more about interviewee
- Time Consuming
- Unimportant information
- Difficult to replicate
- Narrow in focus
- Restrict the interviewee's freedom
- May require only a one word answer
- Closed Questions
o Highly Closed
- Yes/No response
- Either/Or - May choose from a list
- Example: "Do you like ice cream?"
Moderately Closed Questions
- Asking for specific information
- Ex: "How long have you been attending UTA?"
- Closed questions may be bipolar
- Limit response to 1 of 2 choices
- "Do you like diet or regular Coke?"
- "Do you agree or disagree?"
- "Do you come to class regularly?"
- Bipolar means only one of two possible answers and they are opposites
- Easy to replicate
- Get specific information
- Control time limit
- Guide respondents to specific information
- May have little information
- No input on EE's attitudes
- Can select an answer w/o knowing about the topic
- Introduce new topics within a topic and can be taken out of context
- May be either open or closed - see text for examples
- "Tell me about your job."
- "What is your favorite movie?"
Secondary Questions OR Probing Questions
- Built off primary questions
- Attempt to get further information from EE
- Useful when EE is not giving much or vague information
- Can be open or closed
- Also called probing questions
Types of Secondary Questions
- Silent Probes
- Used for incomplete responses
- Relies on nonverbal use such as nod of head
- Nudging Probe
- Clearinghouse Probe
- Used when you suspect you didn't get all the necessary info
- "Have I missed anything that you can think of?"
- Informational Probes
- Used if answers seem ambiguous or open to interpretation
- "I'm not sure I understand your point."
- "Why do you feel that way?"
- Paraphrases to verify accuracy of response
- "You mean 7 AM?"
- "Are you saying you were cheated?"
- Mirror Probes
- Sums a series of questions
- May sum the entire interview
- See text pg. 55 for example
- Allow EE's to decide answers w/o overt direction or pressure
- Encourages honest answers
- "Did you like the movie The Chronicles of Narnia?
- Leads EE towards a specific response
- Situation, tone of the interview, relationship with ER dictates how EE will respond
- Potential for interviewer bias
- Do have a purpose - pg. 58
- "You do know how to type, don't you?"
- Extreme form of leading questions
- Use of name calling and emotionally charged words
- Provide strong direction for answer
- Avoid using them
- "Have you stopped drinking yet?"
- Bipolar Trap
- Asking yes/no questions when you want more info
- Open-To-Close Switch
- Asking open but switching to close before EE can answer - pg.61
- Double-Barreled Inquisition
- Asking 2 or more questions at the same time
- "When and how did you decide to study abroad?"
- Leading Push
- May be intentional or unintentional
- "Didn't you call the accident by talking on your phone while driving?"o
- Guessing Game
- Ask for info, don't guess
- Yes (No) Response
- Asking a question that has an obvious answer
- "Do you want to graduate?"
- Curious Probe
- Asking for info you do not need - age, etc.
- Quiz Show
- Asking EE's questions above or below their information level
- Can insult or embarrass EE
- Don't Ask, Don't Tell
- Ask info or emotional questions that EE may not be able to answer due to social, psychological, situation
- See pg. 69