Juvenile Justice Final Exam Study Sheet



Dear Class:

This is a list of the larger concepts and the vocabulary words that explain the materials in the text. Your test will come from this list. I have not had time to list the court cases. Please add them to this study outline. When you do so, you will have all the emphasis materials that you need to do well in the exam. As you look over this list, you will also note that everything has been gone over in class several times and should be familiar to you all. Good luck, I am sure you will all do well…

Dr. J.


Chapter 9


Seriousness of the Offense and Waiver Decision Making

Types of Waivers

Waiver and Reverse Waiver Hearings

Implications of Waiver Hearings for Juveniles

Defense and Prosecutorial Considerations Relating to Waivers

Blended Sentencing Statues 

Key terms:

Demand Waiver –

Discretionary waivers –

Judicial waivers

Acceptance of responsibility

Blended sentencing

Capital punishment


Concurrent jurisdiction

Contempt of court

Criminal –exclusive blend

Criminal –inclusive blend

Death penalty

Demand waiver

Direct file

Discretionary waiver

Judicial waivers

Juvenile-contiguous blend

Juvenile court records

Juvenile-exclusive blend

Juvenile-inclusive blend

Legislative waiver


Mandatory waiver

Nolle prosequi

Once an adult/always an adult provision



Presumptive waiver

Reverse waiver

Reverse waiver hearings, reverse waiver actions

Statutory exclusion

Sustained petitions

Transfer hearings



Waiver hearing

Waiver motion 

Questions for Review

1. How does offense serious impact the use of waivers in the juvenile justice system?

2. Why should status offenders be separated from delinquent offenders in juvenile justice

 system processing?

3. What is meant by the use of contempt power of juvenile court judges? In what ways does the use of contempt power by juvenile court judges influence status offenders?

4. What are transfers, waivers, and certifications? What are their intended objectives? What is the rationale for using transfers?

5. What are some of the ideal characteristics of youths targeted for transfers to criminal courts?

What are the actual characteristics of youths who are transferred to criminal courts?

6. What are three types of judicial waivers? What are some major differences between them?

7. What are some contrasts between direct file, legislative waivers, and demand waivers?

8. Under what circumstances are juveniles entitled to hearings on waiver actions?

9. What are some positive and negative implications for juveniles if they have their

cases heard in juveniles courts? What are some positive and negative implications for

juveniles if they have their cases heard in criminal court?

10. What are five different kinds of blended sentencing statutes? What are some positive

benefits of blended sentencing statues for serious and violent juvenile offenders?


Chapter 10


The Nature of the Offense

First Offender or Repeat Offender

Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances

Juvenile Risk Assessments and Predictions of Dangerousness

Predisposition Reports 

Key terms:

Actuarial prediction

Anamnestic prediction


Clinical prediction


False negatives

False positives

First offender

Flat time

Needs assessment



Predictors of dangerousness and risk

Predisposition reports

Presentence investigation reports

Repeat offender


Risk/needs assessment instruments

Selective incapacitation

Victim-impact statement

Violent juvenile offender programs 

Questions for Review

1. What are some qualitative differences between first offenders and repeat offenders? How does being a first offender or a repeat offender make a difference in how one’s dangerousness or risk is assessed?

2. What are four different kinds of aggravating circumstances? How does each function to intensify one’s punishment?

3. What are four mitigating circumstances? How do judges use these mitigating circumstances to lesson one’s punishment?

4. What are some major differences between risk instruments and needs assessments?

5. What is meant by selective incapacitation? How is it used? What are false positives and false negatives? How do such designations occur?

6. What are three types of prediction? Which ones are most effective and why?

7. What is a predisposition report? Who prepares this report? How are such reports used for determining a juvenile’s disposition?

8. What is a victim-impact statement? How is it used to modify the severity of one’s


9. What are Violent Juvenile Offender Programs? What are their functions?

10. What are some moral and ethical questions which have been raised about selective

incapacitation? Is selective incapacitation successful? Why or Why not?


Chapter 11


Nominal Dispositions Defined


Diversion Programs for Juveniles

Implications of Diversion Programs for Juveniles

Teen Courts

Day Reporting Centers

Alternative Dispute Resolution 

Key terms:

Alternative dispute resolution

Citizen action model

Community board program

Community organization model

Community services program

Cooperating agencies model

Day reporting centers


Diversion plus program



Peer court

Pins diversion program

See our side program

Street outreach model

Systems modification model

Teen courts

Youth service bureaus

Youth services/diversions program 

Questions for Review

  1. What are nominal dispositions? Do you think they are effective punishments for low-risk juvenile offenders? Why or Why not?
  2. What is meant by diversions? Who are the primary types of juveniles who are eligible for diversions?
  3. What are some of the functions and dysfunctions of diversion?
  4. What is a youth services bureau? What are four types of youth service bureaus? Have they been successful at accomplishing their goals? Why or Why not?
  5. What is meant by the PINS Diversion Program? Is it effective? Why or Why not?
  6. What are teen courts? What types of juvenile offenders are the best types of clients for teen courts? Why?
  7. What are day reporting centers? What are some of their goals and functions?
  8. What are two examples of day reporting centers? What are some of their characteristics and which types of juveniles are served by them?
  9. 10. What is meant by alternative dispute resolution? Do you think it is an effective way of settling disputes between victims and youthful offenders? Why or Why not?


Chapter 12


Standard Probation for Juveniles

The Successfulness of Standard Juvenile Probation

Intermediate Punishments for Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Intensive Supervised Probation

Case Supervision Planning

Community-Based Alternative

Electronic Monitoring

Home Confinement or House Arrest 

Key terms:

American correctional association

Balanced approach

Boston offender project


Case supervision planning

Community corrections acts

Community service

Conditional probation

Conventional model

Conventional model with geographic considerations

Creative sentencing

Electronic monitoring

Electronic monitoring signaling devices


Home confinement

Home incarceration

House arrest

Intensive aftercare program

Intensive supervised probation

Juvenile intensive supervised probation

Juvenile probation camps

Questions for Review

1. What is meant by standard probation? What are some characteristics of it?

2. What was the Youth-to-Victim Restitution Project? What types of clients did it serve?

3. What is a juvenile probation camp? What is meant by intensive aftercare?

4. What is meant by intermediate punishment? How do intermediate punishments differ from standard punishment?

5. What are some goals of intermediate punishments? What are some of the criteria for

placement in intensive supervised probation programs?

6. What is the Ohio experience? What are some of its prominent characteristics?

7. What is meant by case supervision planning?

8. What is meant by the balanced approach? Is it successful in dealing with delinquent

offenders? Why or Why not?

9. What are home confinement and electronic monitoring? Who are the juvenile clients who are disposed to electronic monitoring and/or home confinement? What are the goals and functions of these respective programs?

10. What is victim-offender mediation? Under what conditions is it used? How successful is victim-offender mediation in resolving disputes between juvenile perpetrators and their


Chapter 13


Goals for Juvenile Corrections

Current Juvenile Custodial Alternatives

Non-secure Confinement

Secure Confinement: Variations

Persistent Problems of Non-secure and Secure Confinement

Juvenile Parole

Recidivism and Parole Revocation

Examples of Probation and Parole Revocation for Juveniles

Selected Issues in Juvenile Corrections  

Key terms:

About face

Army model

Boot camps

Combination sentences

Detention centers

Detention hearing

Foster homes

Group homes

Halfway houses

Homeward bound

Impact (intensive motivational program of alternative correctional treatment)

Intermittent sentences

Jail as a condition of probation

Juvenile offender laws

Long-term detention

Minimum due process rights

Mixed sentences

Parole revocation

Parole revocation hearing



Probation revocation hearing

Project outward bound

Regimented inmate discipline program 

Scared straight

Shock incarceration

Shock parole

Shock probation

Short-term confinement

Split sentences

Wilderness experiments 

Questions for Review

1. What are the goals of juvenile corrections? How do these goals differ from one another?

2. What are foster homes? How do they differ from group homes?

3. What are halfway houses? What are their functions and goals?

4. What are wilderness experiences and what are their functions?

5. What is meant by shock probation? What are several different types of shock probation?

What are some major differences between each?

6. What is a boot-camp? What are some specific goals and features of boot camps? Are they effective? Why or why not?

7. What are some major differences between short- and long-term secure juvenile facilities?

8. What is meant by juvenile parole? How much juvenile parole is there? Is juvenile parole successful? Why or why not?

9. What are three key adult probation and parole revocation cases that have guided state

juvenile probation and parole revocation decision making?

10. What are three examples of probation and parole revocation cases for juveniles?