ANTH 5317
The Archæology of Exploration, Travel and Trade

Fall Semester 2006


     The following sources will be of use for the topics we will consider in this course. This list covers some subjects better than others, and should by no means be considered comprehensive. It is long, but has purposely not been arranged topically to encourage you to browse it in its entirety. You are encouraged to identify other appropriate works and to mine their bibliographies.
      Not all of the following works are owned by the UTA Libraries, so use of Interlibrary Loan will be necessary. Anthropology subject librarian John Dillard has compiled an online list of useful resources for this course (including hyperlinks to many full-text articles cited below), which can be accessed here.
      Asterisked items in the list below are on reserve in the Central Library.

Books, monographs and journal articles:

Adams, Colin and Ray Laurence 2001. Travel and Geography in the Roman Empire. Routledge
Anthony, David 1986. "The 'Kurgan Culture,' Indo-European Origins, and the Domestication of the Horse." Current Anthropology 27, pp. 291-313
Anthony, David 1991. "The Origins of Horseback Riding." Antiquity 65, pp. 22-38
Anthony, David 1991. "The Origins of Horseback Riding." Scientific American (Dec. 1991), pp. 94-101
Bagshawe, Richard 1979. Roman Roads. Aylesbury, Bucks.: Shire Publications
Bakker, Jan et al. 1999. “The Earliest Evidence of Wheeled Vehicles in Europe and the Near East.” Antiquity 73, pp. 778-790
Balter, Michael 2004. "Search for the Indo-Europeans." Science 303 (27 February 2004), p. 1323
Bass, George F. 1967. Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age Shipwreck. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57:8. Philadelphia
*Bass, George F. 1972. A History of Seafaring Based on Underwater Archaeology. Walker
Bass, George F. 1995. “Sea and River Craft in the Ancient Near East.” Pp. 1421-1431 in Jack Sasson, ed., Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. NY: Scribners
Beck, C.W. et al. 1971. "Determination of the Origin of Greek Amber Artifacts by Computer Classification of Infrared Spectra." Pp. 235-243 in Brill 1971
Bellwood, Peter 1979. Man's Conquest of the Pacific: The Prehistory of Southeast Asia and Oceania. Oxford UP
Berger, Asa 2004. Deconstructing Travel: Cultural Perspectives on Tourism. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press
Berggren, J. Lennart and Alexander Jones 2002. Ptolemy's Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton
Berndt, R.M. and C. H. Berndt 1964. The World of the First Australians. Chicago: U of Chicago Press
Bogucki, Peter 1993. "Animal Traction and Household Economies in Neolithic Europe."Antiquity 67:256, pp. 492-503
Borowski, Oded 1998. Every Living Thing: Daily Use of Animals in Ancient Israel. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press
Brill, R.H., ed. 1971. Science and Archaeology. Cambridge: MIT Press
Brill, R.H. and J.M. Wampler 1971. "Isotopic Studies of Ancient Lead." American Journal of Archaeology 71, pp. 63-77
Broodbank, Cyprian 1993. "Ulysses Without Sails: Trade, Distance, Knowledge and Power in the Early Cyclades." World Archaeology 24:3, pp. 315-331
Broodbank, Cyprian 2000. An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. Cambridge: Cambridge UP

Brothwell, Donald and E.S. Higgs 1970. Science in Archaeology (rev. and enlarged ed.). Praeger
Bruner, Edward M. 2005. Culture on Tour: Ethnographies of Travel. Chicago: U of Chicago Press
Bulliett, Richard 1990. The Camel and the Wheel. Columbia UP
Burford, A.M.1960. "Heavy transport in Classical Antiquity," Economic. History Review 13, pp. 1-18.
Burton, Harry E. 1932. The Discovery of the Ancient World. New York
Carpenter, Rhys 1966. Beyond the Pillars of Heracles: The Classical World Seen Through the Eyes of its Discoverers. Delacorte
Caley, E.R. 1964. Analysis of Ancient Metals. New York: Pergamon Press
Cann, J.R. and C. Renfrew 1964. "The Characterization of Obsidian and its Application to the Mediterranean Region." Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 30, pp. 11-33
Carpenter, Rhys 1966. Beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Delacorte
Cary, M. and E.H. Warmington 1963. The Ancient Explorers (2nd ed., revised). Pelican
Casson, Lionel 1989. The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton UP
Casson, Lionel 1991. The Ancient Mariners (2nd ed.). Princeton UP
*Casson, Lionel 1994. Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times. U of Texas Press
Casson, Lionel 1994. Travel in the Ancient World (2nd ed.). Johns Hopkins UP
Casson, Lionel 1995. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (revised ed.). Princeton UP
Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi 2000. Genes, Peoples, and Languages. New York
Chambers, Erve 2000. Native Tours: The Anthropology of Travel and Tourism. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press
Chatwin, Bruce 1996. Anatomy of Restlessness: Selected Writings 1969-1989. London: Jonathan Cape
Childe, V.G. 1954. “Rotary Motion.” Ch. 9 in Singer et al. 1954
Childe, V.G. 1954. “Wheeled Vehicles.” Ch. 27 in Singer et al. 1954
Clark, J.G.D. 1952. Prehistoric Europe: The Economic Basis (ch. IX on Trade; ch. X on Transport). London: Methuen
Clutton-Brock, Juliet 1992. Horse Power. Harvard UP
Cole, S.M. 1954. “Land Transport without Wheels, Roads and Bridges.” Ch. 26 in Singer et al. 1954
Crouwel, J.H. 1981. "Chariots and Other Means of Land Transport in Bronze Age Greece." Allard Pierson Series Volume 3. Amsterdam.
Cunliffe, Barry 2001. Facing the Ocean: The Atlantic and its Peoples 8000 B.C.-A.D. 1500. Oxford UP
Cunliffe, Barry 2002. The Extraordinary Voyage of Pytheas the Greek. NY: Walker
de Souza, Philip 2000. Piracy in the Graeco-Roman World. Cambridge UP
Digby, Adrian 1954. “Boats and Ships.” Ch. 28 in Singer et al. 1954
Dilke, O. 1985. Greek and Roman Maps. Cornell UP
Dixon, J.E. et al. 1968. "Obsidian and the Origins of Trade." Scientific American 218(3), pp. 38-46
Dobb, Edwin 1998. "Where the Good Begins: Notes on the Art of Modern Travel." Harper's Magazine 297: July 1998, pp. 59-66
Drews, Robert 1993. The End of the Bronze Age. Princeton UP
Durrani, S.A. et al. 1971. "Obsidian Source Identification by Fission Track Analysis." Nature 223, pp. 242-245
Earle, Timothy and Erickson, J., eds. 1977. Exchange Systems in Prehistory. NY: Academic Press
Elsner, Jás and Joan-Pau Rubiés, eds. 1999. Voyages and Visions: Towards a Cultural History of Travel. London: Reaktion Books
Feifer, Maxine 1985. Tourism in History: From Imperial Rome to the Present. NY: Stein and Day
Fenwick, Helen 2004. "Ancient Roads and GPS Survey: Modeling the Amarna Plain." Antiquity 78:302, pp. 880-85
Finley, M.I. 1978. The World of Odysseus (2nd rev. ed.). Penguin
Fitzhugh, William and E. Ward, eds. 2000. Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press
Forbes, R.J. 1964, "Notes on the History of Ancient Roads and their Construction." Allard Pierson Bijdragen no. 3 (second ed.). Amsterdam
Franck, Irene M. and D.M. Brownstone 1984. To the Ends of the Earth: The Great Travel and Trade Routes of Human History. NY: Facts on File
French, D.H. 1974. "A Study of Roman Roads in Anatolia: Principles and Methods." Anatolian Studies 24, pp.143-149.
Garstang, John 1959. The Geography of the Hittite Empire. London
Gmelch, Sharon B. 2004. Tourists and Tourism: A Reader. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press
Goodchild, R.G. 1956. “Roads and Land Travel, with a Section on Harbours, Docks, and Lighthouses.” Ch. 14 in Singer et al. 1956
Gordus, A.A. et al. 1968. "Obsidian Sources Characterized by Neutron Activation Analysis." Science 161, pp. 382-384
*Greenhill, Basil 1995. The Archaeology of Boats and Ships: An Introduction. London: Conway Maritime Press
Haasum, Sibylla 1974. Vikingatidens Segling och Navigation. Stockholm: Esselte Studium (in Swedish with English summary)
Hafford, William B. 2001. “Merchants in the Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean: Tools, Texts and Trade.” Dissertation, U of Pennsylvania
*Harley, John Brian and David Woodward 1987. Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. U of Chicago Press
Harrison, H.S. 1954. “Discovery, Invention, and Diffusion.” Ch. 3 in Singer et al. 1954
Hartog, François 2001. Memories of Odyssesu: Frontier Tales from Ancient Greece (tr. Janet Lloyd). Chicago: U of Chicago Press
*Helms, Mary 1988. Ulysses’ Sail: An Ethnographic Odyssey of Power, Knowledge, and Geographical Distance. Princeton: Princeton UP
Herman, G. 1968. "Lapis Lazuli: The Early Phases of its Trade." Iraq 30, pp. 21-57
*Hindley, Geoffrey 1972. A History of Roads. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press
Hodges, Henry 1970. Technology in the Ancient World. Barnes and Noble
Hourani, George F. 1995. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times (2nd edition, revised and expanded by John Carswell). Princeton UP
Hyde, Walter W. 1947. Ancient Greek Mariners. Oxford UP
Jansen, Anton G. 2001. A Study of the Remains of Mycenaean Roads and Stations of Bronze-Age Greece. UK: Mellen
Jope, E.M. 1956. “Vehicles and Harness.” Ch. 15 in Singer et al. 1956
Jones, Dilwyn 1995. Boats. Austin: U of Texas Press
Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. 1972. "Trade Mechanisms in Indus-Mesopotamian Interrelationships." Journal of the American Oriental Society 92, pp. 222-229
Landels, J.G. 2000. Engineering in the Ancient World (revised ed.). U of California Press
Larsen, Mogens T. 1976. The Old Assyrian City-State and its Colonies. Amsterdam: Leiden
Laurence, Ray 1999. The Roads of Roman Italy. Routledge
Leach, E.R. 1954. “Primitive Time-Reckoning.” Ch. 5 in Singer et al. 1954
Leed, Eric J. 1991. The Mind of the Traveler. Basic Books
Leed, Eric J. 1995. Shores of Discovery: How Expeditionaries Have Constructed the World. Basic Books
Lethbridge, T.C. 1956. “Shipbuilding.” Ch. 16 in Singer et al. 1956
Littauer, M.A. and J. Crouwel 1996. “The Origin of the True Chariot.” Antiquity 70, pp. 934-939
Loprieno, Anthony 2003. "Travel and Fiction in Egyptian Literature." Ch. 3 in O'Connor, David and Stephen Quirke, eds. 2003. Mysterious Lands (Encounters with Ancient Egypt series). London: UCL Press
Lorimer, H.L. 1903. "The Country Cart of Ancient Greece." Journal of Hellenic Studies 23, pp.132-151
MacCannell, Dean 1976. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. NY: Schocken Books
MacDonald, W.A. 1961. "Overland Communications in Greece During LHIII, with Special Reference to Southwest Peloponnese." In E.L. Bennett, Jr., ed., Mycenaean Studies. Madison: U of Wisconsin Press
Margary, I.D. 1973. Roman Roads in Britain (second ed.) London.
Mark, Samuel 2005. Homeric Seafaring. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Press
Mark, Samuel 1998. From Egypt to Mesopotamia: A Study of Predynastic Trade Routes. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Press
McGrail, Seán 2002. Boats of the World: From the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford UP
*Meijer, F. and O. van Nijf 1992. Trade, Transport and Society in the Ancient World. Routledge
Mellars, Paul 2006. "Going East: New Genetic and Archaeological Perspectives on the Modern Human Colonization of Eurasia." Science 313:5788 (11 August 2006), pp. 796-800
Montiglio, Silvia 2005. Wandering in Ancient Greek Culture. Chicago: U of Chicago Press.
Mulvaney, John and J. Kamminga 1999. The Prehistory of Australia. Smithsonian Institution Press.
Nash, Dennison 1981. "Tourism as an Anthropological Subject." Current Anthropology 22:5 (October 1981), pp. 461-481
Neugebauer, O. 1954. “Ancient Mathematics and Astronomy.” Ch. 31 in Singer et al. 1954
O'Connor, David and Stephen Quirke, eds. 2003. Mysterious Lands (Encounters with Ancient Egypt series). London: UCL Press (ch. 1, "Introduction: Mapping the Unknown in Ancient Egypt")
Oikonomides, Al. N. (translator and editor) 1977. Hanno the Carthaginian. Periplus, or Circumnavigation of Africa. Ares Publishers
Oppenheim, A.L. 1954. "The Seafaring Merchants of Ur." Journal of the American Oriental Society 74, pp. 6-17
Ormerod, Henry A. 1924. Piracy in the Ancient World. Liverpool
Parks, G.A. and T.T. Tieh 1966. "Identifying the Geographical Source of Artifact Obsidian." Nature 211, pp. 289-290
Partridge, R.1996. Transportation in Ancient Egypt. London: Rubicon Press
Perlman, I. and F. Asaro 1971. "Pottery Analysis by Neutron Activation." Pp. 182-195 in Brill 1971
*Petruso, Karl M. 1992. Ayia Irini, vol. VIII: The Balance Weights. An Analysis of Weight Measurement in Prehistoric Crete and the Cycladic Islands. Mainz: Phillipp Von Zabern Press
Piggott, Stuart 1983. The Earliest Wheeled Transport: From the Atlantic Coast to the Caspian Sea. Cornell UP
Piggott, Stuart 1992. Wagon, Chariot and Carriage: Symbol and Status in the History of Transport. Thames and Hudson
Polanyi, Karl et al., eds. 1957. Trade and Market in the Early Empires. Free Press
Potts, Daniel T. 1995. “Distant Shores: Ancient near Eastern Trade with South Asia and Northeast Africa.” Pp. 1451-1464 in Jack Sasson, ed., Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Scribners
Pulak, Cemal 1998. "The Uluburun Shipwreck: An Overview." International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 27, pp. 188-224
Pullen, Daniel 1992. "Ox and Plow in the Early Bronze Age Aegean." American Journal of Archaeology 96, pp. 45-54
Rackham, James 1994. Animal Bones. Berkeley: U of California Press
Ratnagar, Shereen 2006. Trading Encounters: From the Euphrates to the Indus in the Bronze Age. Oxford: Oxford India Paperbacks
Renfrew, Colin 1975. “Trade as Action at a Distance.” Ch. 1 in Sabloff and Lamberg-Karlovsky 1975
Renfrew, C. et al. 1965. "Obsidian in the Aegean." Annual of the British School at Athens 60, pp. 225-247
Renfrew, C. et al. 1966. "Obsidian and Early Culture Contact in the Near East." Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 32, pp. 30-72
Renfrew, C. et al. 1968. "Further Analysis of Near Eastern Obsidians." Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 34, pp. 319-331
Renfrew, Colin 1987. Archaeology and Language. Cambridge UP
Richardson, N.J and S. Piggott 1982. "Hesiod's Wagon: Text and Technology." Journal of Hellenic Studies 102, pp. 225-229.
Roller, Duane 2006. Through the Pillars of Herakles. London: Routledge
Romer, F.E. Pomponius Mela’s Description of the World. U. of Michigan Press
Romm, James S. 1992. The Edges of the Earth in Ancient Thought. Princeton UP
Rosenfeld, Andrée 1965. The Inorganic Raw Materials of Antiquity. Praeger
Rowlands, Michael et al. 1987. Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World. Cambridge UP
Sabloff, Jeremy and C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, eds., 1975. Ancient Civilization and Trade. U of New Mexico Press
Schneider, Jane 1977. "Was There a 'Pre-Capitalist' World-System?" Peasant Studies 6, pp. 20-29
Schortman, Edward and P. Urban 1992. "The Ancient World-System." In Resources, Power, and Interregional Interaction, E. Schortman and P. Urban, eds. pp. 17-21. New York
Seaver, Kirsten 2004. Maps, Myths and Men: The Story of the Vinland Map. Stanford: Stanford UP
Shackleton, N. and C. Renfrew 1970. "Neolithic Trade Routes Realigned by Oxygen Isotope Analyses." Nature 228, pp. 1062-1065
Shannon, Thomas 1989. An Introduction to the World-System Perspective. Boulder
Sherratt, Andrew 1981. "Plough and Pastoralism: Aspects of the Secondary Products Revolution." In N. Hammond, et al., eds., Pattern of the Past: Studies in Honour of David Clarke. Cambridge: Cambridge UP (reprinted as ch. 6 in A. Sherratt, Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1997)
Singer, Charles, E.J. Holmyard and A.R. Hall (eds.) 1954. A History of Technology, vol. I: From Early Times to Fall of Ancient Empires. Oxford UP
Singer, Charles, E.J. Holmyard, A.R. Hall and T.I. Williams (eds.) 1956. A History of Technology, vol. II: The Mediterranean Civilizations and the Middle Ages c. 700 B.C to c. A.D. 1500. Oxford UP
Sitwell, N.H.H. 1981. Roman Roads of Europe. London.
Skowronek, R.K. and C.R. Ewen, eds. 2006. X Marks the Spot: The Archaeology of Piracy. Gainesville: University Press of Florida
Souza, Philip de 2000. Piracy in the Graeco-Roman World. Cambridge UP
Speake, Jennifer, ed. 2003. Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn
Skelton, Raleigh A. et al. 1995. The Vinland Map and the Tartar Relation (2nd. ed., rev.). Yale UP
Skinner, F.G. 1954. “Measures and Weights.” Ch. 30 in Singer et al. 1954
Smith, Valene L, ed. 1977. Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania Press
Steward, Harry 1980. “The Çatal Hüyük Map.” Mapline 19 (September 1980)
Thomson, J. Oliver 1948. History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge UP
Thrower, Norman 1996. Maps and Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society. Chicago: U of Chicago Press

Tozer, H.F. 1935. A History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge UP
Trippett, Frank 1974. The First Horsemen. Time-Life Books
Turnbull, David 1993. Maps are Territories. Chicago: U of Chicago Press
Unger, E. 1937 . “From Cosmos Picture to the World Map.” Imago Mundi 2, pp. 1-7
van Paassen, Christiaan 1957. The Classical Tradition of Geography. Groningen
Veenhoff, K.R. 1995. “Kanesh: An Assyrian Colony in Anatolia.” Pp. 859-871 in Jack Sasson, ed., Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Scribners
Veenhoff. K.R. 1972. Aspects of Old Assyrian Trade and its Terminology. Amsterdam.
Wapnish, Paula 1981. “Camel Caravans and Camel Pastoralists at Tell Jemmeh.” Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University 13, pp. 102-121
Wapnish, Paula 1997. “Camels.” Pp. 407-408 in Eric Meyers, ed., Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Oxford UP
Ward, Cheryl A. 2000. Sacred and Secular: Ancient Egyptian Ships and Boats. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America.
Webb, Malcolm 1975. “The Flag Follows Trade: An Essay on the Necessary interaction of Military and Commercial Factors in State Formation.” Ch. 4 in Sabloff and Lamberg-Karlovsky 1975
White, K.D. 1984. Greek and Roman Technology. London
Wood, Frances 2003. The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia. Los Angeles: U of California Press
Wright, Gary A. 1969. Obsidian Analyses and Prehistoric Near Eastern Trade 7500 to 3500 BC. U of Michigan Press
Wright, Gary A. 1974. Archaeology and Trade. Addison-Wesley

Websites (Only a start; participants are encouraged to recommend reliable websites they discover in the course of their research):

An online translation of the Story of Sinuhe:

An online translation of the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor:

A website with many illustrations of early maps and conceptions of the world:

David Anthony's website on research into the domestication and early use of the horse, including a number of online articles:

The Virtual Museum of Nautical Archaeology of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, based at Texas A&M University (includes articles on excavated Mediterranean and other shipwrecks):

J.S. Illsley's University of Southampton course on the History and Archaeology of the Ship is outstanding, and has a deep archive of images: The index is at

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