Other Direct Costs
Expendable Supplies: This category may also be referred to as consumables, materials, or M&O (materials and operations). It consists of items purchased for office, laboratory and/or instructional purposes that are directly related to the project activities. Applicants should be aware of the difference between "supplies" and "equipment" (see the Equipment section below for a definition). Items that do not meet the definition of Equipment must be purchased as supplies, regardless of how they will be used in the execution of the project.
Publication Costs: Included in this category are the costs of preparing and publishing the results of the activities conducted under the sponsored project, including reports, reprints, page charges, necessary illustrations (art work, graphics, photography), etc.
Creating clean fuel
Chemistry researchers are devising a process to convert carbon dioxide—the greenhouse gas associated with climate change—into liquid methanol fuel using copper oxide nanowires and sunlight.