Jonathan A. Campbell
Department of Biology
The University of Texas at Arlington
Arlington, Texas 76019
USA


CLASS AMPHIBIA

 

ORDER GYMNOPIONA-CAECILIANS



FAMILY CAECILIIDAE


Genus Dermophis Peters, 1880


Dermophis Peters, 1880 [dated 1879], Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1879:924­943[930]. Type-species: Siphonops mexicanus Duméril and Bibron (1841), by subsequent designation of Noble (1924:305).

CONTENT
: Four species.


Dermophis mexicana (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)
Siphonops mexicanus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gén. 8:284. Holotype: MNHNP 4275, according to Guibé (1950). Type-locality: "Mexique".
Amphisbaena versatilis Johnston in Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batrach. Grad., 60. [Nomen nudum. MS name presented as a junior synonym of Siphonops mexicanus.]
Dermophis mexicanus
-Peters, 1880 [dated 1879], Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1879:924­943[937).
Dermophis mexicanus-Günther, 1901, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[305].
Gymnopis gracilior Günther, 1902, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[306]. Holotype: BM 1901.12.19.137. Type-locality: Chiriquí, Panama.
Gymnophis clarkii Barbour, 1926, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5:191. Holotype: MCZ 11047. Type-locality: Tela, Honduras.
Dermophis mexicanus gracilior-Dunn, 1928, Proc. New England Zool. Club 10:71­76[73].
Dermophis mexicanus clarki-Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 59:72.
Gymnopis mexicanus mexicanus-Dunn, 1942, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 91:473.
Dermophis mexicanus mexicanus-Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 194:4.
Dermophis costaricense Taylor, 1955, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 37:506. Holotype: KU 36343. Type-locality: "Chinchona, Heredia Province, Costa Rica".
Gymnopis mexicana mexicana-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1 150[16].
Dermophis eburatus Taylor, 1968, Caecilians of the World, p. 473. Holotype: UMMZ 65674. Type-locality: Nicaragua.
Dermophis septentrionalis Taylor, 1968, Caecilians of the World, 513. Holotype: ZMH 2. Type locality: Not given, but presumably Guatemala, according to Dunn (1942). [See comment in Taylor, 1968:513.]
Dermophis mexicanus eburatus-Taylor, 1973, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 50:227.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant and coastal lowlands from central Veracruz and Oaxaca (Mexico) to western Panama; on the Pacific from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Mexico) to western Panama. In Guatemala the species is known from the lower Río Motagua Valley and it occurs locally on the Atlantic versant of Honduras. This species inhabits lowland forests at elevations ranging from about sea level to a little over1500 m. Escuintlan, Fuegan, and Petén Areas (map).


Genus Gymnopis Peters, 1874


Gymnopis Peters, 1874, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1874:616. Type-species: Gymnophis multiplicatus Peters (1874), by monotypy.
Minascaecilia Wake and Campbell, 1983, Copeia 1983:857. Type-species: Minacaecilia sartoria Wake and Campbel (1983), by original designation.

CONTENT: Three species.


Gymnopis syntremus (Cope, 1866)
Siphonops syntremus Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:123­132[129]. Holotype: See Remarks below. Type-locality: "the neighboring region of Honduras"; the northern coast of Honduras, according to Taylor (1968); see Remarks below.
Siponops oligozona Cope, 1877, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 17:91. Holotype: USNM 25187. Type locality: Unknown, possibly Chiapas or Tehuantepec, Mexico, according to Taylor (1968).
?Gymnopis oligozona-Peters, 1879, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1879:924­943[939].
?Typhlonectes syntremus-Peters, 1879, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1879:924­943[941].
Dermophis syntremus-Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22:167­194[171].
Gymnophis oligozona-Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22:167­194[171].
Minascaecilia sartoria Wake and Campbell, 1983, Copeia 1983:858. Holotype: KU 189566. Type-locality: "Aldea Vista Hermosa, Municipio Los Amates, Departamento de Izabal, Guatemala, 650 m".
Gymnopis syntremus-Nussbaum, 1988, Copeia, 1988:921­928[922].

DISTRIBUTION: This species occurs in the mountains of eastern and northern Guatemala and the Maya Mountains of Belize. In Guatemala known from humid Caribbean forests of the mountains of Alta Verapaz, the Sierra de las Minas, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, and the Sierra de Merendón. Stafford (1994) reported this species for Belize. In Guatemala the range of this species probably includes much of the foothills of the northern Alta Verapaz highlands and the Montañas del Mico; it has been found near the border of Honduras and it probably occurs in this country also. The elevational range is from 650 to 900. Quecchian, Mayan, Minan, and Merendón Areas (map).

 

ORDER CAUDATA-SALAMANDERS

FAMILY PLETHODONTIDAE


Genus Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854


Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 9:88. [In part.] Type-species: Bolitoglossa mexicana Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril (1854), by subsequent designation of Taylor (1944: 218).
Oedipus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr., 100 pp.[58]. Type-species: Salamandra platydactylus Gray (1831), by monotypy. [Preoccupied by Oedipus Berthold, 1827, Orthoptera).
Eladinea Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937, Campo, Rio de Janeiro 8:42. Type-species: Eladinea estheri Miranda-Ribeiro (1937), by monotypy.
Magnadigita Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218]. [In part.] Type-species: Bolitoglossa nigroflavescens Taylor (1941), by original designation.
Palmatotriton Smith, 1945, Ward's Nat. Sci. Bull. 19:3­7[4]. Type-species: Oedipus rufescens Cope (1869), by monotypy.

CONTENT: About 75 species.


Bolitoglossa cuchumatana (Stuart, 1943)
Oedipus cuchumatanus Stuart, 1943, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 56:1­33[14, pl. 1, fig. 2]. Holotype: UMMZ 89110. Type-locality: "Oak forest about 2 kilometers north of Nebaj, El Quiché, Guatemala."
Magnadigita cuchumatana-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita cuchumatana-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[20].
Bolitoglossa cuchumatana-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: The northwestern highlands of Guatemala in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes. This species occurs in cloud forest and pine-oak forest and is known from the departments of Quiché and Huehuetenango at elevations of 1200­2500 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Bolitoglossa dofleini (Werner, 1903)
Spelerpes mulleri-Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent.3:97­122[116] [in part].
Spelerpes dofleini Werner, 1903, Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Math. Physik. Kl. 22:343­384[352]. Holotype: Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates (apparently destroyed during World War II). Type-locality: Guatemala, possibly Alta Verapaz according to Stuart (1943:17).
Oedipus dofleini-Stuart, 1943, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 56:1­33[17].
Bolitoglossa dofflini [sic]-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[219].
Bolitoglossa dofleini-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[17].

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant of Guatemala, Cayo District in Belize, and a few mountain ranges in northwestern Honduras. In Guatemala, the species is known from the Atlantic slopes of Alta Verapaz, the Montañas del Mico, and the Sierra de Merendón. The elevational distribution is from sea-level to 1300 m. Petén, Quecchian, Mican, Mayan, and Merendón Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa dunni (Schmidt, 1933)
Oedipus dunni Schmidt, 1933, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 20:15­22[16]. Holotype: FMNH 4550. Type-locality: "mountains west of San Pedro [Sula], Honduras. Altitude 4500 feet."
Magnadigita dunni-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Bolitoglossa dunni-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: Mountains of eastern Guatemala, northwestern El Salvador, and western Honduras. In Guatemala, the species occurs in cloud forest and is known from the Sierra de Merendón. Merendón and Jalapan Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa engelhardti (Schmidt, 1936)
Oedipus engelhardti Schmidt, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 20:135­166[156, fig. 18]. Holotype: FMNH 21605. Type-locality: "Volcán Atitlán, 7,000 feet above Olas de Moca, Sololá, Guatemala" [see Remarks].
Magnadigita englehardti [sic]-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita engelhardti-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[20].
Bolitoglossa engelhardti-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific versant from the Departamento of San Marcos. Guatemala, eastward into western El Salvador. The elevational distribution is from about 1,500 to 2,000 m.
The report of this species from 2,134 m (Schmidt, 1936) appears to be a little high and may be in error, because, as pointed out by Stuart (1963), this species was restricted in the same paper to elevations below 6500 feet (Schmidt, 1936:fig. 15). Fuegan and Jalapan Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa flavimembris (Schmidt, 1936)
Oedipus flavimembris Schmidt, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 20:135­166[158, fig. 17]. Holotype: FMNH 20381. Type-locality: "Volcán Tajumulco, at 7200 feet, on the trail above El Porvenir, San Marcos, Guatemala."
Magnadigita flavimembris-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita flavimembris-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[20].
Bolitoglossa flavimembris-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific versant of southeastern Chiapas (Mexico) eastward to southwestern Guatemala. In Guatemala, the species is known from the Volcán Tacaná, Volcán Tajumulco, Volcán Atitlán, and Volcán Sant María. It occurs in cloud forest at elevations of 1800 to 2400 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Bolitoglossa flaviventris (Schmidt, 1936)
Spelerpes attitlanensis [sic] Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122[115, pl. 19, figs. 3-4]. Syntypes (2): MNHN 6398-99. Type-locality: near Volcán Atitlán, Guatemala. [This name was placed in the synonymy of Bolitoglossa salvinii by Stuart (1963); Brame in Frost (1985) has suggested that it is the oldest name for Bolitoglossa flaviventris.]
Oedipus flaviventris Schmidt, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 20:135­166[148]. Holotype: USNM 46922. Type-locality: "Chicharras, Chiapas," Mexico.
Bolitoglossa flaviventris-Frost, 1985. Amph. Species World, p. 576.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific highlands of southeastern Chiapas, Mexico, and southwestern Guatemala. It occurs at elevations of 10 to 500 m. Escuintlan Area (map).


Bolitoglossa franklini (Schmidt, 1936)
Oedipus franklini Schmidt, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 20:135­166[159, fig. 19]. Holotype: FMNH 21061. Type-locality: "Volcán Tajumulco, at 5600 feet altitude, on the trail above El Porvenir, San Marcos, Guatemala."
Bolitoglossa nigroflavescens Taylor, 1941, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 27:141­167[150]. Holotype: USNM 111169. Type-locality: "Cerro Ovando, at an elevation between 5,000 to 6,000 feet," Chiapas, Mexico.
Magnadigita franklini-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita nigroflavescens-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita brevipes Bumzahem and Smith, 1955, Herpetologica 11:73­75[74]. Holotype: UIMNH 33694. Type-locality: "Región de Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico."
Magnadigita franklini-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[21].
Bolitoglossa nigroflavescens-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].
Bolitoglossa brevipes-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].
Bolitoglossa franklini-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific versant of southwestern and south-central Guatemala. This species ranges from the Departamento de San Marcos to the Departamento de Suchitepéquez (Volcán Atitlán). It occurs in cloud forest and the elevational distribution is from 1500 to 2600 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Bolitoglossa hartwegi Wake and Brame, 1969
Bolitoglossa hartwegi Wake and Brame, 1969, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 175:1­40[10]. Holotype: UMMZ 121557. Type-locality: "4.5 mi. W San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico...at about 2134 m (7000 feet) elevation."

DISTRIBUTION: Mountains of east-central Chiapas, Mexico, and adjacent Guatemala. In Guatemala, this species occurs in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes and XXX. This species occurs in cloud forest and pine-oak forest at elevations of 1200­2865 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Bolitoglossa helmrichi (Schmidt, 1936)
Spelerpes morio-1883, Brocchi, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122 [113] [in part?].
Oedipus helmrichi Schmidt, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 20:135­166[152, fig. 18]. Holotype: fmnh 21063. Type-locality: "mountains above Finca Samac, west of Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, at 5000 feet altitude."
Bolitoglossa helmrichi-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita helmrichi-Stuart, 1952, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 65:1­12[5].
Magnadigita helmrichi-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[21].
Bolitoglossa helmrichi-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: The north-central highlands of Guatemala. This species is known from several mountain ranges in Alta Verapaz and the Sierra de las Minas. It occurs in cloud forest and the elevational distribution is from about 1300 to 2290 m. Quecchian and Minan Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa jacksoni Elias, 1984
Bolitoglossa jacksoni Elias, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 348:7. Holotype: MVZ 134634. Type-locality: "Las Nubes sector of Finca Chiblac, approximately 12 km km NNE of Santa Cruz Barillas, Depto. Huehuetenango, Guatemala, at about 1,400 m elevation."

DISTRIBUTION: Northwestern Guatemala; known only from the vicinity of the type locality in the northwestern Sierra de los Cuchumatanes in the Departamento Huehuetenango. It is known from cloud forest at an elevation of about 1400 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Bolitoglossa lincolni (Stuart, 1943)
Oedipus lincolni Stuart, 1943, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 56:1­33[9; pl. 1, fig. 1]. Holotype: UMMZ 89107. Type-locality: "monte at Salquil Grande, El Quiché, Guatemala. Altitude 2450 m."
Magnadigita lincolni-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita lincolni-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[21].
Bolitoglossa lincolni-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: The Meseta Central of Chiapas, Mexico, and the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes of western Guatemala. It inhabits cloud forest at elevationals of about 2000 to 2900 m. Cuchumatan Area (map),


Bolitoglossa meliana Wake and Lynch, 1982
Bolitoglossa meliana Wake and Lynch, 1982, Herpetologica 38:258. Holotype: MVZ 160736. Type-locality: "vicinity of Santa Rosa Pass, 9 km NE Santa Cruz del Quiché, El Quiché, Guatemala (elevations 2520 m)."

DISTRIBUTION: The mountains of central Guatemala, including the Sierra de Chuacús and the Sierra de la Minas. This species occurs in pine-oak forest and cloud forest at elevations of 1550­2730 m. Chuacús and Minan Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa mexicana Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854
Bolitoglossa mexicana Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 9:93. (In part, according to Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1-150[18].) Syntypes: MNHNP 4747-2 individuals mentioned in addenda to original description. Type-locality: "province d'Oaxaca au Mexique" and "Vera Crux."
Salamandra togata Valenciennes in Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 9:94. [Nomen nudum.]
Salamandra mexicana Cuvier in Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 9:94. [Nomen nudum.]
Spelerpes mexicana-Hallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8:11.
Spelerpes mexicanum-Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122 [113]. [In part.]
Geotriton mexicana-Garman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst. 16:40.
Spelerpes mexicanus-Dugès, 1894, La Naturaleza (2)2:377.
Bolitoglossa mexicana-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[219].
Bolitoglossa moreleti Smith, 1945, Herpetologica 3:XXX[17]. Holotype: USNM 116079. Type locality: "from a bromeliad in the vicinity of Palenque, Chiapas," Mexico.
Bolitoglossa moreleti-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[17].

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic foothills and lowlands from southern Veracruz (Mexico) to northwestern Honduras, exclusive of all but the southernmost portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. This species inhabits [forest] at elevations ranging from about sea level to a little over 1500 m.
In Guatemala this species occurs throughout most of the northern foothills of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, the Alta Verapaz highlands, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, the northern slopes of the Sierra de las Minas, and the Montañas del Mico. It is also widely distributed in the southern Petén lowlands northward to a latitude about equal to Tikal. The elevation distrbution is from about 10 to 1700 m. Peten, Mayan, Cuchumatan Quecchian, Mican, and Merendón Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa morio (Cope, 1869)
Oedipus morio Cope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 21:77, 103. Holotype: USNM 6888, now lost according to Stuart, 1963. Type-locality: "Mountains of Guatemala."
Geotriton morio-Smith, 1877, Tailed Amph., 158 pp.[74].
Spelerpes bocourti Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122[111; pl. 18, fig. 2]. Holotype: MNHN [type not definitely identifiable according to Stuart, 1963]. Type locality "heights of Tonicapam [sic = Totonicapán], Guatemala."
Spelerpes morio-Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Coll. Brit. Mus., 503 pp.[70].
Magnadigita morio-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita omniumsanctorum Stuart, 1952, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 65:1­12[4]. Holotype: UMMZ 102285. Type-locality: Todos Santos, Huehuetenango, Guatemala, 2500 m.
Magnadigita morio-Stuart, 1952, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 65:1­12[5].
Magnadigita omniumsanctorum-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[22].
Magnadigita morio-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[21].
Bolitoglossa omniumsanctorum-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].
Bolitoglossa morio-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: The highlands of southwestern and southeastern Guatemala, including the Pacific versant. This species is known from the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes, much of the plateau region of Guatemala, several of the Pacific volcanoes, and the Las Nubes highland block east of Guatemala City. Its elevational distribution is from about 1300 to 3000 m. Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Jalapan Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa mulleri (Brocchi, 1883)
Spelerpes mulleri Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122 [116, pl. 20, figs. 3-5]. Syntypes (4): MNHN 6395-4 individuals. Type-locality: from several localities in "haute Alta Vera Paz," Guatemala. Restricted to "les montagnes qui dominent Coban" by Stuart (1943:12).
Spelerpes copei Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122 [113]. [Nomen nudum.]
Oedipus mulleri-Stuart, 1943, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 56:1­33[12].
Bolitoglossa mulleri-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[219].
Oedipus mexicanus mulleri-Stuart, 1948, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 69:1­109[19].
Bolitoglossa mülleri-Guibé, 1950 [dated 1948], Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., 71 pp.[10].
Bolitoglossa moreleti muelleri-Duellman, 1963, Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 15:205­249[220].
Bolitoglossa mulleri-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[18].

DISTRIBUTION: Mountains of the Atlantic slopes of eastern Chiapas (Mexico) and northern Guatemala. In Guatemala, this species occurs in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes, Alta Verapaz highlands, and the Sierra de Santa Cruz. It inhabits cloud forest at elevationals from about 140 to 1500 m. Cuchumatan and Quecchian Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa occidentalis Taylor, 1941
Bolitoglossa occidentalis Taylor, 1941, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 27:141­167[145, fig. 1c, pl. 9, figs. 1-4]. Holotype: USNM 111085. Type-locality: "La Esperanza [near Escuintla], Chiapas, Mexico, elevation 500 feet."
Bolitoglossa occidentalis-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[18].
Bolitoglossa bilineata Lynch and Smith, 1966, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 69:58­75[59]. Holotype: UIMNH 56162. Type-locality: Sierra Madre north of Zanatepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. [Secondary homonym of Bolitoglossa bilineata Duméeril, Bibron, and Duméril (1854) = Eurycea bislineata bislineata.]

DISTRIBUTION: Along the Pacific versant from southeastern Oaxaca (Mexico) to south-central Guatemala; possibly southwestern Honduras from the Department of Coneayagua. Its inhabits elevationals from about 10 to 1600 m. Escuintlan and Fuegan Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa odonnelli (Stuart, 1943)
Oedipus odonelli Stuart, 1943, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 56:1­33[10; pl. 2, fig. 3]. Holotype: UMMZ 89096. Type-locality: "Cafetal just east of the hacienda at Finca Volcán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Altitude 1200 meters."
Oedipus mexicanus odonnelli-Stuart, 1948, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 69:1­109[19].
Bolitoglossa mexicana odonnelli-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].
Bolitoglossa odonnelli-Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 345:1­19[XX].

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic slopes of Alta Verapaz to the Montañas del Mico. This sepcies inhabits rainforest and cloud forest at elevations of 100­1000 m. Quecchian, Minan, and Mican Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa resplendens McCoy and Walker, 1966
Bolitoglossa resplendens McCoy and Walker, 1966, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 649: 1. Holotype: UCM 25520. Type-locality: Southwest slope of Cerro Hueytepec, seven miles west of San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Mountains of central Chiapas, Mexico, and southwestern Guatemala (Departamento de San Marcos). Cuchumatan and Chimaltenangan Areas (map).

Bolitoglossa rostrata (Brocchi, 1883)
Spelerpes rostratus Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122 [112]. Holotype: MNHN [type not definitely identifiable, according to Stuart, 1963]. Type-locality: "les hauteurs de Totonicapam [sic = Totonicapán] (Guatemala occidental)."
?Spelerpes bocourti Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122 [111]. Holotype: MNHNP ?. Type-locality: Tonicapam [= Totonicapán], Guatemala. It is not certain whether this name represents a synonym of Bolitoglossa morio (Cope, 1869) or B. rostrata (Brocchi, 1883).
Oedipus rostratum-Dunn, 1924, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 12:99.
Oedipus rostratus-Dunn, 1926, Salamand. Fam. Plethodontidae, p.384.
Magnadigita rostrata-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[218].
Magnadigita rostrata-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[22].
Bolitoglossa rostrata-Wake and Brame, 1963, Copeia 1963:382­387[386].

DISTRIBUTION: The Guatemalan Plateau and the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of Guatemala. It also occurs on some of the higher volcanos. Its elevational distribution is from about 2700 to 3480 m. Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, and Fuegan Areas (map).



Bolitoglossa rufescens (Cope, 1869)
Oedipus rufescens Cope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 21:104. Holotype: USNM 6886, now lost. Type-locality: "Orizaba," [=Orizaba], Veracruz, Mexico.
Spelerpes (Oedipus) rufescens-Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1873:XXX[617].
Geotriton rufescens-Smith, 1877, Tailed Amph., 158 pp.[76].
Spelerpes rufescens-Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Coll. Brit. Mus., 503 pp.[71].
Oedipus rufescens-Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae, p. 418.
Bolitoglossa rufescens-Taylor, 1941, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 27:147.
Palmatotriton rufescens-Smith, 1945, Ward's Nat. Sci. Bull. 19:4.

Bolitoglossa rufescens-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[18].
DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic slopes from east-central Mexico (San Luis Potosí) through Guatemala and Belize to northern Honduras. It ranges from 10 to 1500 m. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Minan, Mican, Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Bolitoglossa salvinii (Gray, 1868)
Oedipus salvinii Gray, 1868, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 2:297. Holotype: BMNH 1946.9.6.26 (formerly 1865.6.10.19h). Type-locality: Guatemala, Pacific Coast.
Spelerpes salvinii-Müller, 1878, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel 6:579.
Oedipus carbonarius salvinii-Cope, 1879, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 18:267.
Oedipus variegatus salvinii-Cope, 1887, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 32:8.
Spelerpes variegatus, Günther, 1902, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[302, pl. 75, fig. B].
Oedipus salvinii-Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae, p. 405.
Bolitoglossa salvinii-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[219].
Bolitoglossa salvini-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1-150[19].

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of southern Guatemala and El Salvador. Its elevational distribution is from about 600 to 1250 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Bolitoglossa stuarti Wake and Brame, 1969
Bolitoglossa stuarti Wake and Brame, 1969, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 175:1­40[22]. Holotype: UMMZ 123203. Type-locality: "7.8 mi (by road) SE of Ciudad Cuauhtémoc (El Ocotal), Chiapas, Mexico, in [Departamento de] Huehuetenango, Guatemala, at about 950 m (3120 feet) elevation."

DISTRIBUTION: Eastern Chiapas, Mexico, and western Guatemala at elevations of 900­1000 m. Grijalvan Area (map).


Bolitoglossa yucatana (Peters, 1882)
Spelerpes (Oedipus) yucatanus Peters, 1882, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin 1882:137. Holotype: ZMB 10221, according to Bauer et al. (1993). Type-locality: Yucatán, Mexico.
Spelerpes yucatanicus Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Coll. Brit. Mus., 503 pp.[72]. Holotype: BM 1946.9.6.25 (formerly 1880.7.13.4). Type-locality: Yucatan (Mexico).
Spelerpes punctatum Brocchi, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 3:97­122 [115]. Holotype: MNHNP 6392, according to Guibé (1950). Type-locality: Mexico.
Spelerpes yucatanus-Boulenger, 1883, Zool. Rec. 1883:72.
Oedipus jucatanicus-Cope, 1883, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 32:8. [Typographical error.]
Oedipus yucatanicus-Dunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 62:471.
Oedipus yucatanus-Dunn, 1924, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 12:99.
Bolitoglossa yucatana-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[219].

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico and northern Belize; its presence in the Petén of Guatemala is expected by not confirmed. It occurs at elevation of less than 300 m. Petén Area (map).


Genus Bradytriton Wake and Elias, 1983


Bradytriton Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 345:3. Type species: Bradytriton silus Wake and Elias, 1983, by original designation.

CONTENT: A single species.


Bradytriton silus Wake and Elias, 1983
Bradytriton silus Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Los Angeles Co. 345:4. Holotype: MVZ 131587. Type-locality: "Finca Chiblac, 15 km NE Barillas, Depto. Huehuetenango, Guatemala, elevation 1310 m (4300 ft)."

DISTRIBUTION: Eastern Chiapas, Mexico, and the adjacent northwestern slopes of the Sierra de los Cuchumatantes in Guatemala; also known from the western portion of the Sierra de las Minas in central Guatemala. This species inhabits cloud forest at elevations of 1310­1370 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Genus Cryptotriton García­París and Wake, 2000
Cryptotriton García­París and Wake, 2000, Copeia 2000:42­70[58]. Type-species: Oedipus nasalis Schmidt (XXXX).

CONTENT: Six species.


Cryptotriton monzoni (Campbell and Smith, 1998)
Nototriton monzoni Campbell and Smith, 1998, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas 6:6. Holotype: UTA A-50003. Type-locality: "Cerro del Mono, near La Unión, Zacapa, Guatemala, 1570 m.
Cryptotriton monzoni-París and Wake, 2000, Copeia 2000:42­70[58].

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type-locality in eastern Guatemala. Merendón faunal area (map). Jalapan Area (map).

Cryptotriton veraepacis (Lynch and Wake, 1978)
Chiropterotriton veraepacis Lynch and Wake, 1978, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 294:2. Holotype: MVZ 112499. Type-locality: 4.2 km (by road) S Purulhá, Baja Berapaz, Guatemala; at an elevation between 1740 and 1780 meters.
Nototriton veraepacis-Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 345:12.
Cryptotriton veraepacis-París and Wake, 2000, Copeia 2000:42­70[58].

DISTRIBUTION: Mountains of Central Guatemala; known from cloud forest of the Sierra de las Minas at elevations of 1610­2290 m. Minan Area (map).


Cryptotriton wakei (Campbell and Smith, 1998)
Nototriton wakei Campbell and Smith, 1998, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas 6:6. Holotype: UTA A-50002. Type-locality: "west slope of Cerro Pozo de Agua, Sierra de Caral, Municipio de Morales, Izabal, Guatemala, 1150 m elevation."
Cryptotriton wakei-París and Wake, 2000, Copeia 2000:42­70[58].

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type-locality at about XXX m in eastern Guatemala. Merendón Area (map).


Genus Dendrotriton Wake and Elias, 1983


Chiropterotriton Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:XXX[213]. [In part.] Type-species: Oedipus multidentatus Taylor (1939), by original designation.
Dendrotriton Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 345:XXX[11]. Type-species: Oedipus bromeliacia Schmidt (1936), by original desingation.

CONTENT:


Dendrotriton bromeliacius (Schmidt, 1936)
Oedipus bromeliacia Schmidt, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 20:135­166[161, fig. 18]. Holotype: FMNH 21062. Type-locality: "Volcán Tajumulco, at 8,000 feet altitude, on the trail above El Porvenir, San Marcos, Guatemala."
Chiropterotriton bromeliacea [sic]-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[216].
Chiropterotriton bromeliacia-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[19].
Dendrotriton bromeliacius-Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 345:XXX[XX]

DISTRIBUTION: Southwestern Guatemala; known only from the south slope of Volcán Tajumulco and adjacent volcanic highlands in San Marcos, Guatemala. It occurs at elevations of 1700 to 2700 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Dendrotriton cuchumatanus (Lynch and Wake, 1975)
Chiropterotriton cuchumatanus Lynch and Wake, 1975, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus Los Angeles Co. 265:XXX[6]. Holotype: MVZ 113002. Type-locality: "forest along highway 9N, 8.5 km (by road) SW San Juan Ixcoy, Huehuetenango, Guatemala, at about 2860 m elev."
Dendrotriton cuchumatanus-Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 345:XXX[XX].

DISTRIBUTION: Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala, at an elevation of 2860 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Dendrotriton rabbi
(Lynch and Wake, 1975)

Chiropterotriton rabbi Lynch and Wake, 1975, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 265:2. Holotype: MVZ 103839. Type-locality: "9.5 km W 8.5 km S (airline) La Democracia, Huehuetenangol, Guatemala,...between 2100 and 2500 meters."
Dendrotriton rabbi-Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 345:XXX[XX].

DISTRIBUTION: The Montañas de Cuilco and the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of western Guatemala at elevations of 2100 to 2700 m. Cuchumatan and Cuilcan Areas (map).


Genus Nototriton Wake and Elias, 1983


Chiropterotriton Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[213]. [In part.] Type species: Oedipus multidentatus Taylor (1939), by original designation.
Nototriton Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co. 345:XXX[11]. Type-species: Spelerpes picadoi Stejneger (1911), by original designation.

CONTENT: About 12 species.


Nototriton brodiei Campbell and Smith, 1998
Nototriton brodiei Campbell and Smith, 1998, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas 6:3. Holotype: UTA A-50000. Type-locality: "west slope of Cerro Pozo de Agua, Sierra de Caral, Municipio de Morales, Izabal, Guatemala, 1125 m elevation."

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type-locality in eastern Guatemala at XXX m. Merendón Area (map).


Nototriton stuarti Wake and Campbell, 2000
Nototriton stuarti Wake and Campbell, 2000, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 113:815­819[817]. Holotype: UTA A-33686. Type-locality: "11.6 km (road) WSW Puerto Santo Tomás, Montañas del Mico, Depto. Izabal, Guatemala, 88š40"W, 15š38'N, 744 m elev."

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type-locality in the Motañas del Mico at an elevation of 744 m. Mican Area (map).


Genus Nyctanolis Elias and Wake, 1983


Nyctanolis Elias and Wake in Rhodin and Miyata (eds.), 1983, Adv. Herpetol. Evol. Biol., XXX pp.[2]. Type-species: Nyctanolis pernix Elias and Wake (1983), by original designation.

CONTENT: A single species.


Nyctanolis pernix Elias and Wake, 1983
Nyctanolis pernix Elias and Wake in Rhodin and Miyata (eds.), 1983, Adv. Herpetol. Evol. Biol., XXX pp.[2]. Holotype: MVZ 134641. Type-locality: "Finca Chiblac, 10 km (air) NE Barillas, Huehuetenango, Guatemala, (91š 16' W, 15š 53' N), 1370 m (4500 ft) elevation."

DISTRIBUTION: Eastern Chiapas, Mexico; northwestern Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, highlands of Alta Verapaz, and western Sierra de las Minas of Guatemala at an elevation of 1370­1610 m. Cuchumatan, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).


Genus Oedipina Keferstein, 1868


Oedipina Keferstein, 1868, Nachr. Konig. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen 1868:299; pl. 9, figs. 8­9. Type species: Oedipina uniformis Keferstein, 1868, by monotypy.
Ophiobatrachus Gray, 1868, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)2:298. Type-species: Ophiobatrachus vermicularis Gray, 1868 [= Oedipina uniformis Keferstein, 1868], by monotypy.
Opheobatrachus-Cope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 21:101. [Unjustified emendation.]
Haptoglossa Cope, 1893, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 1893:33. Type-species: Haptoglossa pressicauda Cope (1893), by monotypy.
Oedopina-Hilton, 1946, J. Ent. Zool., Pomona 38:6. [Misspelling.]
Oedopinola Hilton, 1946, J. Ent. Zool., Pomona 38:38]. Type-species: Oedipus complex Dunn (1924), by original designation.

CONTENT: About 22 species.


Oedipina elongata (Schmidt, 1936)
Oedipus elongatus Schmidt, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 20:135­166[165]. Holotype: FMNH 20059. Type-locality: "[Las] Escobas, the site of the water supply for Puerto Barrios, Izabal, Guatemala."
Oedipina elongata-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[226].
Oedipina elongata-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[22].
Oedipina (Oedopinola) elongata-París and Wake, 2000, Copeia 2000:42­70[60].

DISTRIBUTION: Low Atlantic foothills from central Chiapas (Mexico) to Belize and the Departamento de Izabal in eastern Guatemala. In Guatemala this species is known from Alta Verapaz, the eastern portion of the Sierra de las Minas, the Montañas del Mico, and the Sierra de Merendón. Its elevational distribution is from about 10 to 770 m. Cuchumatan, Quecchian, Minan, Mican, and Merendón (map).


Oedipina ignea Stuart, 1952
Oedipina ignea Stuart, 1952, Proc. Biol Soc. Washington 65:1­12[1]. Holotype: USNM 127959. Type-locality: "along the Río Las Brisas just south of Yepocapa, Department of Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Elevation about 1450 m."
Oedipina taylori-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[22]. [In part; not of Stuart, 1952].
Oedipina (Oedipina) ignea-París and Wake, 2000, Copeia 2000:42­70[60].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific Versant of south-central and southeastern Guatemala. This species occurs in mesic broad-leaf forest and pine-oak forest at elevations of 1000­2000 m. Fuegan and Jalapan Areas (map).


Oedipina stenopodia Brodie and Campbell, 1993
Oedipina stenopodia Brodie and Campbell, 1993, Herpetologica 49:259­265[260]. Holotype: UTA A-24559. Type-locality: "south slope of Volcán Santa María, Finca El Faro, Deparatamento de Quezaltenango, Guatemala;...This locality is located between 1219 and 1432 m elevation at about 14š 43' N, 91š 34' W."
Oedipina (Oedipina) stenopodia-París and Wake, 2000, Copeia 2000:42­70[60].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific Versant of southwestern Guatemala in the Departments of San Marcos and Quezaltenango. This species occurs in cloud forest at elevations of 1400­1500 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Oedipina taylori Stuart, 1952
Oedipina taylori Stuart, 1952, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 65:1­12[2]. Holotype: UMMZ 102281. Type-locality: "4 kilometers east of Hacienda La Trinidad (23 air line kilometers southeast of Chiquimula), Department of Jutiapa, Guatemala. Elevation, about 100 meters."
Oedipina salvadorensis Rand, 1952, Nat. Hist. Misc., Chicago 98:XXX[1]. Holotype: FMNH 65030. Type-locality: San Salvador, at 670 meters altitude, El Salvador.
Oedipina taylori-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[22].
Oedipina (Oedipina) taylori-París and Wake, 2000, Copeia 2000:42­70[60].

DISTRIBUTION: Southeastern Guatemala to central El Salvador; also the lower Motagua Valley in the vicinity of Doña María. This species occurs at elevations of 140­1050 m. Zacapan and Jalapan Areas (map).


Genus Pseudoeurycea Taylor, 1944


Pseudoeurycea Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[209]. Type-species: Spelerpes leprosus Cope (1869), by original designation.

CONTENT: About 28 species.


Psuedoeurycea brunnata Bumzahem and Smith, 1955
Pseudoeurycea brunnata Bumzahem and Smith, 1955, Herpetologica 1:73­75[73]. Holotype: UIMNH 33708. Type-locality: "Región de Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico."

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of southwestern Guatemala and southeastern Chiapas (Mexico) at elevations of 2400­2800 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Pseudoeurycea exspectata Stuart, 1954
Pseudoeurycea exspectata Stuart, 1954, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 67:159­178[159]. Holotype: UMMZ 107999. Type-locality: "Broadleaf forest 3 km. W Aldea Miramundo (about 7 airline km. SE Jalapa), Jalapa, Guatemala; 2525 meters." [Miramundo was stated to be actually about 7 km southeast of Jalapa by Stuart, 1963].
Pseudoeurycea exspectata-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[23].

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the highlands to the southwest of Jalapa, Departamento de Jalapa, Guatemala. Stuart (1963) suggested that this species possibly occurs on "some of the isolated volcanic peaks of southeastern Guatemala." It is known from 2530 m. Jalapan Area (map).


Pseudoeurycea goebeli (Schmidt, 1936)
Oedipus goebeli Schmidt, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 20:135­166[163, fig. 17]. Holotype: FMNH 21064. Type-locality: "Volcán Tajumulco, at 8,000 feet altitude, on the trail above El Porvenir, San Marcos, Guatemala."
Pseudoeurycea goebeli-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[209].
Pseudoeurycea goebeli-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[23].

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of southeastern Chiapas, Mexico and southwestern Guatemala; in Guatemala it occurs from Volcán Tajumulco to Volcán de Agua. Its elevational distribution is from about 2400 to 2800 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Pseudoeurycea rex (Dunn, 1921)
Oedipus rex Dunn, 1921, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 34:143. Holotype: FMNH 1814. Type locality: "Sierra Santa Elena (near Tecpam), Guatemala (alt. 9500 feet)."
Pseudoeurycea rex-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:189­232[209].
Pseudoeurycea rex-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[23].

DISTRIBUTION: The Sierra de los Cuchumatanes and the southwestern highlands of Guatemala, probably including the higher volcanoes. This species in known with certainty only from Volcán Tajumulco. Its elevational distribution is from about 2450 to above 4000 m. Chuacús, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan Areas (map).


ORDER ANURA-FROGS & TOADS

FAMILY RHINOPHRYNIDAE


Genus Rhinophrynus Duméril and Bibron, 1841
Rhinophrynus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gén. 8:757, Atlas, 1854: pl. 91, figs., 2-2a. Type species: Rhinophrynus dorsalis Duméril and Bibron, 1841.

CONTENT: A single species.


Rhinophrynus dorsalis Duméril and Bibron, 1841
Rhinophrynus dorsalis Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gén. 8:758, Atlas, 1854: pl. 91, figs., 2-2a. Holotype: MNHN 743. Type-locality: Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: The Gulf coastal lowlands from extreme southern Texas (USA) through Mexico to the Petén region and Río Motagua Valley of Guatemala; in the Pacific lowlands from Guerrero (Mexico) to northwestern Costa Rica. Its elevation distribution is from about sea level to 300 m. Petén, Zacapan, Jalapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


FAMILY LEPTODACTYLIDAE


Genus Eleutherodactylus Duméril and Bibron, 1841
Eleutherodactylus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gén. 8:620. Type-species: Hylodes martinicensis Tschudi (1838), by monotypy

CONTENT: Over 500 species.

Eleutherodactylus adamastus Campbell 1994
Eleutherodactylus admastus Campbell, 1994, Herpetologica 50:404. Holotype: KU 189797. Type-locality: northern slopes of the eastern portion of the Sierra de las Minas, Municipio Los Amates, 0.8 km W Aldea Vista Hermosa, 650 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the area near Aldea Vista Hermosa at an elevation of 600­650 m. Mican and Minan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus alfredi (Boulenger, 1898)
Hylodes alfredi Boulenger, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1898:480­481, pl. 39, fig. 1. Cotypes: BMNH 98.2.19.1 and 98.4.7.1. Type-locality: Atoyac, Veracruz, Mexico.
Eleuherodactylus alfredi-Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 160::94­95.

DISTRIBUTION: East-central Veracruz (Mexico) to extreme northwestern Guatemala, where it is known from near Piedras Negras, Petén, at elevations of less than 200 m. Petén Area (map).

Eleutherodactylus amniscola Campbell and Savage, 2000
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:30. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus amniscola Campbell and Savage, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr. 14:227. Holotype: UMMZ 225235. Type-locality: "Santa Ana Huista, 920 m, Huehuetenango, Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: The Middle and Upper Río Grijalva Basin in Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala at elevations of 600­1000 m. Grijalvan Area (Map.


Eleutherodactylus aphanus Campbell 1994
Eleutherodactylus aphanus Campbell, J. A. 1994. Herpetologica 50:297. Holotype: UTA A 33405. Type-locality: "12.0 km WSW Puerto Santo Tomás, 786 m, Departamento de Izabal, Guatemala...This locality is located on the eastern slopes of the Montañas del Mico at about 15š41´ N, 88š41´ W."

DISTRIBUTION: The eastern slopes of the Montañas del Mico and the northern slopes of the eastern portion of the Sierra de las Minas in the Department of Izabal, Guatemala, at elevations of 591­786 m. Mican Area (map).


Eleutherodactylus bocourti (Brocchi, 1877)
Hylodes bocourti Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philom., Ser. 7(1):122­123130. Syntypes (8): MNHN 6413-14; 6413 designated lectotype by Guibé, Cat. Types Amphib. Mus. Nat. Hist. Natur., ND:28. Type-locality: Mountains of Cobán, Guatemala.
Eleutherodactylus bocourti-Stuart, 1948, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 69:1­109[22].

DISTRIBUTION: Mountains of Alta Verapaz and the Sierra de las Minas of Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about 1300 to 1700 m. Quecchian and Minan Areas (map).

Eleutherodactylus brocchi (Boulenger, 1882)
Hylodes brocchi Boulenger in Brocchi, 1882, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 2:57­96[60, pl. 15, figs. 3-3a]. Holotype: MRHN 2616. Type-locality: "Guatemala."
Eleutherodactylus brocchi-Stuart, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54:200.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern foothills and highlands of Guatemala from the Sierra de las Minas and ranges of Alta Verapaz and Baja Verapaz westward through the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes to northwestern Huehuetenango and the Lagos de Montebello region of eastern Chiapas (Mexico). It occurs at elevation of 1200­2000 m. Quecchian, Minan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus chac Savage, 1987
Eleutherodactylus chac Savage, 1987, Fieldiana: Zool., New Series 33:1­57[31]. Holotype: KU 186243. Type-locality: "12.6 km W Santo Tomás, Izabal, Guatemala, 774 m."

DISTRIBUTION: Rainforest areas of Belize, the northern foothills of Guatemala from Alta Verapaz to Izabal, and northern Honduras. It occurs from 30 to 780 m. Mican, Merendón, Petén, and Quecchian Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus charadra Campbell and Savage, 2000
Eleutherodactylus chradra Campbell and Savage, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr. 14:247. Holotype: UTA A-33702. Type-locality: "Upper reaches of Quebrada San Antonio, SW side Cerro del Nylon, 1310 m, Sierra de Espíritu Santo, Municipio Los Amates, Izabal Guatemala."
Eleutherodactylus brocchi-Stuart, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54:200.

DISTRIBUTION: The highlands between the Río Motagua in Guatemala and the Río Chamelecón in Honduras. In Guatemala, portions of these mountains are referred to as the Sierra de Caral and Cerro del Nylon, both of which are in the Siera de Merendón or the Sierra de Espíritu Santo. The elevational range of this species is from 75 to 1310 m. Merendón Area (map).

Eleutherodactylus daryi Ford and Savage, 1884
Eleutherodactylus daryi, Ford and Savage, 1884, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 110:1. Holotype: KU 186202. Type-locality: "3.8 km (by road) SE Purulhá, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala, 1585 m."

DISTRIBUTION: Cloud forest of the Sierra Xucaneb and Sierra de las Minas, central Guatemala. It has an elevational ranges of 1500­2290 m. Quecchian and Minan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus greggi Bumzahem, 1955
Eleutherodactylus greggi Bumzahem, 1955, Copeia 1955:118. Holotype: FMNH 20876. Type locality: Volcán Tajumulco, near San Marcos, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) and southwestern Guatemala at elevations of 2000 to 2700. Fuegan Area (map).

Eleutherodactylus inachus Campbell and Savage, 2000
Eleutherodactylus inachus Campbell and Savage, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr. 14:232. Holotype: UTA A-33440. Type-locality: "Quebrada Los Chorros, 650 m, Aldea Santa Elena, near San Diego, Zacapa, Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: The Middle Motagua Valley and associated tributaries in east-central Guatemala, and the streams draining the slopes of the Salamá Basin in Baja Verapas at elevation of 500­1400 m. Zacapan and Salaman Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus laticeps (A. Duméril, 1853)
Hylodes laticeps A. Duméril, 1853, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris (3)19:178. Holotype: MNHNP 509. Type-locality: Central America: Yucatán; almost certainly in error for "Guatemala: Alta Verapaz (near Cobán)," according to Savage (1987:23).
Eleutherodactylus stantoni Schmidt, 1941, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser. 22:483 Holotype: UMMZ 80673. Type-locality: Valentin, Cayo, Belize, 400­500 m.
Eleutherodactylus conspicuus Taylor and Smith, 1945, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 95:567, fig. 60A. Holotype: USNM 116509. Type-locality: Piedras Negras, Guatemala.
Eleutherodactylus werleri Lynch and Fritts, 1965, Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 58:46. Holotype: UIMNH 42987. Type-locality: Volcán San Martín Pajapán, Veracruz, Mexico, 1219 m.
Eleutherodactylus conspicuus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:29.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant from Chiapas (and perhaps Veracruz) through Belize and Guatemala to western and northern Honduras. It occurs at elevations of 50­1600 m. Petén, Quecchian, Mican, and Merendón Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus lineatus (Brocchi, 1879)
Hylodes lineatus Brocchi, 1879, Bull. Soc. Philom., ser 7(3):19­24[22]. Holotype: MNHNP 4885. Type-locality: "Attitlan (Mexique);" almost certainly in error for vicinity of Lago de Atitlán, Sololá, Guatemala, according to Stuart (1963:29). The ammended type-locality was suggested to be, in error, in the Department de Quezaltenango by Savage (1987:34).
Eleutherodactylus anzuetoi Stuart, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washinton 54:197. Holotype: UMMZ 89160. Type-locality: Two km. N Nebaj, El Quiché, Guatemala; about 1985 meters.
Eleutherodactylus macdougalli Taylor, 1942, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28:71 Holotype: UIMNH 15907. Type-locality: 12.9 km SE of Chimalapa, La Gloria, Oaxaca, Mexico, 1372 m.
Eleutherodactylus lineatus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:29.

DISTRIBUTION: On both Atlantic and Pacific versants from Oaxaca and Chiapas (Mexico) to Guatemala at elevations of 900 to 2000 m. Cuchumatan, Quecchian, Minan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus matudai Taylor
Eleutherodactylus matudai Taylor, 1941, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 27:154, pl. 11. [Specific name spelled "matudae" on plate and in several places in text.] Holotype: USNM 110626. Type-locality: "Mt. Ovando, Chiapas," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of eastern Chiapas (Mexico) and western Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about 1300 to 2290 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Eleutherodactylus palenque Campbell and Savage, 2000
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus rugulosus-Lynch, 1965, Herpetologica 21:108. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus-Savage, 1975, Copeia 1975:108. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus palenque Campbell and Savage, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr. 14:221. Holotype: KU 171219. Type-locality: "10.7 km SE Cristóbal Colón on road to Bonampak, ca. 350 m, Chiapas, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: The lower Caribbean slopes of northern Chiapas (Mexico) and the northwestern Guatemalan highlands at elevation of 300­350 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Eleutherodactylus psephosypharus Campbell, Savage, and Meyer, 1994
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1-150[30]. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus rugulosus-Duellman, 1963, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15:223. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus species A-Campbell and Vannini, 1989, West. Found. Vert. Zool. 4:7.
Eleutherodactylus psephosypharus Campbell, Savage, and Meyer, 1994, Herpetologica 50:413. Holotype: UTA A-18194. Type-locality: "7.8 km WSW Puerto Santo Tomás, 375 m, northeastern slope Montañas del Mico, Departamento de Izabal, Guatemala....This locality is located on the eastern slopes of the Montañas del Mico at about 15š41´ N, 88š40´ W. The town of Santo Tomás is called Puerto Santo Tomás de Castilla or Puerto Matías de Gálvez on some maps."

DISTRIBUTION: This species occurs in the Departamento de Izabal of Guatemala in the Montañas del Mico, the Sierra de las Minas, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, and the Sierra del Merendón, and from just north of the Sierra de Chinajá in the Departamento de Petén (near Alta Verapaz boundary). It is known from several localities in the Maya Mountains of Belize. This species lives in Tropical Moist Forest, Subtropical (Premontane) Moist and Wet Forest, and Lower Montane Wet Forest at elevations of 150­1170 m. Petén, Merendón, Quecchian, Mican, and Minan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus pygmaeus Taylor, 1936

Eleutherodactylus pygmaeus Taylor, 1936, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 39:352, pl. 1, figs. 3-4. Holotype: UIMNH 16125. Type-locality: one mile N Rodriquez Clara, Veracruz, Mexico.
Microbatrachylus pygmaeus-Taylor, 1939, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 26:500.

DISTRIBUTION: Veracruz and Guerrero (Mexico) southward to the Pacific versant of western Guatemala. In Guatemala it is known from about 2000 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Eleutherodactylus rhodopis (Cope, 1867)
Lithodytes rhodopis Cope, 1867 [dated 1866], Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:323. Syntypes: USNM; USNM designated as lectotype by Smith and Taylor (1948:67). Type locality: Veracruz (Mexico) at Orizaba and Córdoba; restricted to Orizaba by lectotype designation.
Eleutherodactylus rhodopis-Kellogg, 1932, Bull, U.S. Natl. Mus. 160:112.
Eleutherodactylus rhodopis-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:29.

DISTRIBUTION: Low and moderate elevations of southern Mexico to El Salvador. In Guatemala it is known from about 200 to 1700 m. Petén, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus rivulus Campbell and Savage, 2000
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus-Stuart, 1943, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 471:1­28[16]. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus rivulus Campbell and Savage, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr. 14:224. Holotype: UMMZ 90951. Type-locality: "Samac­Chamá Trail, on Finca Samac, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala." This site lies at about 1250 m.

DISTRIBUTION: The highlands of northern Guatemala including the mountains of Alta Verapaz and the eastern portion of the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes in the Department of Quiché. It occurs at elevations of 770­1250 m. Quecchian and Huehuetenangan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus rostralis (Werner, 1896)
Hylodes rostralis Werner, 1896, Verhand k. k. zool.-bot. Gesell Wien 1896:8. Holotype: Originally in the "Petersburger Museum," given as ZMB 13203 by Savage (1987:29). Type-locality: Honduras.
Hylodes sallaei, Günther, 1900, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[221] [?in part].
Eleutherodactylus rostralis-Stuart, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54:198. [In part, also included E. laticeps.]
Eleutherodactylus rostralis
-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[30]. [In part, also included E. laticeps.]

DISTRIBUTION: Mesic forests of eastern Guatemala and northern and western Honduras at elevations of 850­1300 m. Merendón and Jalapan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus rupinius Campbell and Savage, 2000
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus-Smith and Taylor, 1948, U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 194:65. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus
-Stuart, 1954, Contr. Lab. Vert. Biol. Univ. Michigan 68:46. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus rupinius Campbell and Savage, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr. 14:213. Holotype: UTA A-26199. Type-locality: "Finca El Faro, S slope Volcán Santa María, 4.0 km N El Palmar, 875 m, Quezaltenango, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific drainages of southeastern Chiapas (Mexico) from the vicinity of Escuintla southeastward through southern Guatemala to eastern El Salvador. It occurs at elevations of 400­1760 m. Fuegan and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus sabrinus Campbell and Savage, 2000
Eleutherodactylus ranoides-Schmidt, 1941, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 22:482. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus rugulosus
-Neill, 1965, Bull. Florida St. Mus. 9:82. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus
-Savage, 1975, Copeia 1975:289. [In part.]
Eleutherodactylus sp. (rugulosus group)-Campbell, 1998, Amph. Rept. N. Guatemala, Yucatán, Belize, p. 56.
Eleutherodactylus sabrinus Campbell and Savage, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr. 14:239. Holotype: UTA A-24425. Type-locality: "Las Escobas, 5.1 km WSW Puerto Santo Tomás, 150 m, Montañas del Mico, Izabal, Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: The fothills of eastern Guatemala including the Montañas del Mico, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, the eastern portion of the Sierra de las Minas, the northern portion of the Sierra de Merendón, and the Maya Mountains of Belize where it occurs from about sea level to 900 m. Quecchian, Minan, Merendón, Mican, and Mayan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus sandersoni Schmidt, 1941
Eleutherodactylus sandersoni Schmidt, 1941, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 22:485. Holotype: FMNH 49048. Type-locality: "Double Falls, west of Stann Creek, British Honduras, at ca. 150 m.
Eleutherodactylus rugulosus
-Lynch, 1965, Herpetologica 21:110. [In part.]

DISTRIBUTION: Caribbean slopes of the Maya Mountains in east-central Belize southward to the Montañas del Mico in eastern Guatemala and westward to the Sierra de Santa Cruz, the eastern portion of the Sierra de las Minas, and the foothills of northern Alta Verapaz at elevations ranging from nar sea-level to 1160 m. Mayan, Mican, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus stuarti Lynch, 1967
Eleutherodactylus stuarti Lynch, 1967, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 70:180. Holotype: UMMZ 126738. Type-locality: "Aldea Paraiso, 13 km S La Mesilla (on Guatemala­Mexico border), Depto. Huehuetenango, Guatemala, 2200 m."

DISTRIBUTION: Mountainous regions of southwestern Guatemala and adjacent Chiapas (Mexico). Its elevation distribution is 1300­2200. Fuegan and Cuilcan Areas (map).


Eleutherodactylus trachydermus Campbell 1994
Eleutherodactylus trachydermus Campbell, 1994, Herpetologica 50:400. Holotype: UTA 33705/ Type-locality: Xiacam, Sierra de Santa Cruz, Departamento de Izabal, Guatemala, 900 m.

DISTRIBUTION: nown only from the vicinity of the type-locality in the Sierra de Santa Cruz in Guatemala at an elevation of about 900 m. Quecchian Area (map).


Eleutherodactylus xucanebi Stuart, 1941
Hylodes brocchi Günther, 1900, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[236, pl. 68, figs. A-B] [in part]. Name preocuupied by Hylodes brocchi Boulenger, 1882 (Leptodactylidae).
Eleutherodactylys xucanebi Stuart, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54:199. Holotype: UMMZ 89914. Type-locality: Cloud forest above Finca Volcán (49 km. airline E Cobán), Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; about 1300 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern highlands of Guatemala, including the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes, Sierra de Xucaneb, and Sierra de las Minas. Its elevational distribution is from about XX to XX m. Cuchumatan, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).


Genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1926
Leptodactylus, Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept. 1826:38, 64. Type-species: Rana fusca Schneider (1799).

CONTENT: About 50 species.

Leptodactylus labialis (Cope, 1877)
Cystignathus labialis Cope, 1877, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 17:90. Holotype: USNM 31302. Type-locality: Probably Mexico.
Leptodactylus fragilis Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris (7)1:182. Holotype: MNHN 1952. Type-locality: Tehuantepec, Mexico.
Leptodactylus labialis-Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 1:1­56[20].
Leptodactylus caliginosus-Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 1:1­56 [17; pl. 5, figs. 1­1c].
Leptodactylus labialis-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1-150[31].

DISTRIBUTION: On the Atlantic from southern Texas and on the Pacific from Guerrero southward through Central America to Costa Rica. In Guatemala, this species occurs from near sea-level to 1300 m. Petén, Salaman, Zacapan, Fuegan, Jalapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Leptodactylus melanonotus (Hallowell, 1860)
Cystignathus melanonotus Hallowell, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12:485. Holotype: USNM 6264 [now lost]. Type-locality: Nicaragua.
Cystignathus echinatus Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philom. Ser. 7(1):181. Syntypes (4): MNHN 6322-23. Type-locality: Rio Madre Nieja [sic, = Vieja], Guatemala.
Leptodactylus echinatus-Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 1:1­56 [18, pl. 5, figs. 4-4a].
Leptodactylus melanonotus-Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 1:1­56 [20].
Leptodactylus melanonotus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1-150[31].

DISTRIBUTION: On the Atlantic from Tamaulipas and on the Pacific from southern Sonora, Mexico, southward through Central America to Costa Rica. In Guatemala, this species is widespread in the lowlands of the Yucatán Platform, including Petén and Alta Verapaz. It is also abundant in the Río Polochic and Río Motagua Valleys. The species ranges throughout most of the Pacific lowlands. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 1300 m. Petén, Salaman, Zacapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826
Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Classif. Rept., p. 39. Type-species: Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger (1826),
Engystomops Jiménez de la Espada, 1872, Anal. Soc. España Hist Nat. 1:85­88[86]. Type species: Engystomops petersi Jiménez de la Espada, 1872.

CONTENT: About 33 species.


Physalaemus pustulosus
(Cope, 1864)

Paludicola pustulosa Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16:180. Holotype: USNM 4339 [apparently now lost]. Type-locality: Truando River, Colombia.
Engystomops pustulosus-Boulenger, 1882, Catalog. Batr. Sal. Brit. Mus., ed 2, 503 pp.[275].
Engystomops pustulosus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1-150[31].

DISTRIBUTION: Low elevations from eastern and southern Mexico through Central America to Colombia and Venezuela. In Guaemala this species ranges from near sea-level to 1350 m. Petén, Salaman, Zacapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).

Genus Syrrhophus Cope, 1878
Syrrhopus Cope, 1878, Am. Nat. 12:253. Type-species: Syrrhophus marnockii Cope, 1878, by monotypy.

CONTENT: About 24 species.

Syrrhophus leprus Cope, 1879
Syrrhophus leprus Cope, 1879, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 18:268. Holotype: USNM 10040. Type locality: "Santa Efigenia," Oaxaca, Mexico.
Syrrhophus leprus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[32].

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Veracruz (Mexico) into northern Guatemala at elevations of 10­500 m. Petén Area (map).


Syrrhopus pipilans Taylor, 1940
Syrrhophus pipilans Taylor, 1940, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 53:95. Holotype: FMNH 100072. Type-locality: "9 mi. south of Mazatlán, Guerrero, México (km. 337)."
Syrrhopus nebulosus Taylor, 1943, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 29:353, pl. 27, figs. 3-5. Holotype: FMNH 100095. Type-locality: near Tonolá, Chiapas, Mexico.
Syrrhopus pipilans nebulosus-Duellman, 1958, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 594:9.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant and Río Grijalva Valley of Chiapas (Mexico); entering western Guatemala in the depression of the upper Río Grijalva Valley. Its elevational distribution is from about 300 to 1800 m. Grijalvan Area ( Map).


Syrrhopus rubrimaculatus Taylor and Smith, 1945
Syrrhopus rubrimaculatus Taylor and Smith, 1945, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 95:583. Holotype: USNM 114070. Type-locality: "La Esperanza, [near Escuintla,] Chiapas," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Lower portion of Pacific versant of southeastern Chiapas (Mexico) and southwestern Guatemala. The elevation distribution is 300 to 880 m. Fuegan Areas (map).


FAMILY BUFONIDAE


Genus Bufo Laurenti, 1768
Bufo Laurenti, 1768, Synop. Rept., p. 25. Type-species: Bufo vulgaris Laurenti, 1768 [= Rana bufo Linnaeus, 1758], by subsequent designation of Tschudi (1838:88).

CONTENT: About 210 species.


Bufo bocourti Brocchi, 1877
Bufo bocourti Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philom, Ser 7(1):186. Syntypes (9): MNHN 63-44; also 6471, according to Stuart, 1963. Type-locality: Totonicapán, Guatemala.
Bufo bocourti-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[25].

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Meseta Central of Chiapas (Mexico) and western Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about 1900 to 3200 m. Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Bufo campbelli Mendelson, 1994
Bufo campbelli Mendelson, 1994, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 166:1­21[40]. Holotype: KU 186320. Type-locality: "Las Escobas, 5.1 km W Puerto Santo Tomás, 104 m, Montañas del Mico, Departamento de Izabal, Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: The Atlantic piedmont of Guatemala from northern Alta Verapaz and southern El Petén to Izabal. The elevational distribution of this species is from near sea level to at least1080 m. Petén, Quecchian, Mayan, Mican, and Merendón Areas (map).


Bufo canalifer Cope, 1877
Bufo canaliferus Cope, 1877, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 17:85. Syntypes: USNM 30315­24. Type locality: West Tehuantepec, Mexico.
Bufo canaliferus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[25].
Bufo canalifer-Frost, XXXX.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant from Oaxaca (Mexico) southeastward into El Salvador. Its elevational distribution is from about 10 to 700 m. Escuintlan, Fuegan, and Jalapan Areas (map).


Bufo coccifer Cope, 1866
Bufo coccifer Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:130. Holotype: USNM 6490. Type-locality: "Arriba," Costa Rica.
Bufo coccifer-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[25].

DISTRIBUTION: Low and moderate elevations from Mexico to Costa Rica at elevations from near sea-level to 2000 m. Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Bufo ibarrai Stuart, 1954
Bufo ibarrai Stuart, 1954, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 67:162. Holotype: UMMZ 108000. Type-locality: Oak-pine zone at Aserradero San Lorenzo (about 12 airline km. slightly east of north of Jalapa), Jalapa, Guatemala; 1725 meters.
Bufo ibarrai-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[26].

DISTRIBUTION: Sierra de las Minas, eastern portion of the Guatemalan Plateau, and mountains of southeastern Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about 1500 to 1730 m. Minan and Jalapan Area (map).


Bufo luetkeni Boulenger, 1891
Bufo luetkeni Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 8:455. Syntypes (3): BM 1947.2.21.67, other two specimens now lost, according to Stuart, 1963. Type-locality: Cartago, Costa Rica.
Bufo luetkeni-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[26].

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant from southeastern Guatemala to Costa Rica. In Guatemala, this species also occurs in several of the dry interior valleys, including the upper Río Motagua and the Salamá Basin. Its elevational distribution is from about 10 to 1300 m. Zacapan, Salaman, and Jalapan Areas (map).


Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Rana marina Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10:211. Holotype: originally in the Seba collection [see Kellogg, 1932]. Type-locality: "America"; restricted to Surinam [sic, = Suriname] by Schmidt, 1941:482.
Bufo horribilis Wiegmann, 1833, Isis von Oken 26:654. Syntypes: Mus. Nat. Berlin 3478­81. Type-locality: Misantla and Veracruz, Mexico.
Bufo marinus-Schneider, 1882, Hist. Amphib., 219.
Bufo marinus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:26.

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread at low elevations from southern Texas (USA) southward through Mexico and Central America to Brazil. In Guatemala, it occurs throughout the lowlands of both the Atlantic and Pacific drainages. Most records are from below 1000 m, but the species is known from above 1500 m near Guatemala City and the slopes drained by the upper tributaries of the Río Negro. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chuacús, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Area (map).


Bufo macrocristatus Firschein and Smith, 1957
Bufo valliceps macrocristatus Firschein and Smith, 1957, Herpetologica 13:219­222[219]. Holotype: UIMNH 35583. Type-locality: between La Gloria and Cerro Azul, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Bufo valliceps-Baylor and Stuart, 1961, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 74:195­202[198].
Bufo cavifrons-Porter, 1 1963, Herpetologica 19:229­247[232]. [In part.]
Bufo macrocristatus-Tihen, 1962, Am. Midl. Nat. 67:157­183[168].

DISTRIBUTION: Cloud forest of southeastern Oaxaca and northern Chiapas (Mexico) and northwestern Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes of Guatemala, at elevations of 1000­1200 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Bufo tacanensis P. Smith, 1952
Bufo tacanensis P. Smith, 1952, Copeia 1952:176, pl. 1. Holotype: UMMZ 88359. Type locality: Volcán Tacaná, Union Juarez, Chiapas, Mexico; 1500 meters.
Bufo tacanensis-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[26].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific versant of southwestern Guatemala and adjacent southeastern Chiapas (Mexico). Its elevational distribution is from about 1500 to 1700 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Bufo tutelarius Mendelson, 1997
Bufo valliceps-Porter, 1963, Herpetologica 19:229­247[fig. 8]. [In part.]
Bufo cavifrons-Johnson, 1989, Contrib. Biol. Geol. Milwaukee Pub. Mus. 76:1­66[42, 60]. [In part.]
Bufo tutelarius
Mendelson, 1997, Herpetoogica 53:14­30[15]. Holotype: UTA A-13135. Type locality: "Colonia Rodulfo Figueroa, 19.0 km NW Rizo de Oro, Oaxaca, Mexico, 1370 m."

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico from the Cerro Baúl region eastward through the Sierra Madre del Sur of Chiapas to the Montañas del Cuilco in western Guatemala. This species occurs in Lower Montane Wet forest at elevations of 1650 to 2000 m. Fuegan and Cuilcan Areas (map).


Bufo valliceps Wiegmann, 1833
Bufo valliceps Wiegmann, 1833, Isis 1833:657. Syntypes (8): ZMB 3525-32. Type-locality: Mexico.
?Bufo canaliferus-Brocchi, 1882, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent. 2:5796[74, pl. 8, figs. 2-2b]. [Not of Cope, 1877.]
Bufo valliceps valliceps-Firschein and Smith, 1957, Herpetologica 13:219­222[219].
Bufo valliceps valliceps-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[26].

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread from the United States from southwestern Mississippi and Lousiana through eastern ans southern Texas southward on the Atlantic versant and coastal plain to Nicaragua; crossing over in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region to the Pacific and thence to southeastern Guatemala Bufo valliceps occurs throughout most of the lowlands of the Petén, the Río PolochicValley, and Río Motagua Valley. In Guatemala, it occurs from sea-level to 1850 m. Petén, Mayan, Cuchumatan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chuacús, Zacapan, Salaman, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Bufo wilsoni Baylor and Stuart, 1961
Bufo valliceps wilsoni Baylor and Stuart, 1961, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 74:195­202[195, figs. 1-2]. Holotype: UMMZ 119391. Type-locality: Jacaltenango (ca. 50 airline km. NW Huehuetenango), Huehuetenango, Guatemala; ca. 1525 m.

DISTRIBUTION: The slopes in western Guatemala drained by the upper tributaries of the Río Grijalva. The elevation range is from 300 to 800 m. Grijalvan Area (map).


FAMILY HYLIDAE

Genus Agalychnis 1864


Agalychnis Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16:181. Type-species: Hyla callidryas Cope (1862), according to Frost (1985:198).

CONTENT: Eight species.

Agalychnis callidryas (Cope, 1862)
Hyla callidryas Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14:359. Holotype: ANSP 2091. Type-locality: Darién, Panama; unjustifiably restricted to Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor (1950:347).
Agalychnis callidryas-Cope, 1965, Nat. Hist. Rev. 12:97­119[110].
Agalychnis helenae Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22:167­194[182]. Holotype: USNM 13737. Type-locality: "Nicaragua."
Phyllomedusa helenae-Kellog, 1932, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 160:1­224[145].
Phyllomedusa (Agalychnis) callidryas-Lutz, 1950, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 48:599­637[601].
Phyllomedusa callidryas taylori Funkhouser, 1957, Occas. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Stanford Univ. 5:1­89[34, fig. 22]. Holotype: FMNH 100166. Type-locality: Tierra Colorada, Veracruz, Mexico.
Phyllomedusa callidryas-Savage and Heyer, 1967, Beitr. Neotrop. Fauna 5:111­131[123].
Agalychnis callidryas-Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 1:1­753[102].

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico from southern Veracruz and northern Oaxaca southeastward on Atlantic lowlands and foothills to eastern Panama; from Nicaragua to Panama this species occurs along Pacific drainages. In Guatemala, this species occurs in the northern and eastern lowlands in XXX forest and has a vertical distribution from about sea level to 800 m. Petén, Quecchian, and Mican Areas (map).


Agalychnis moreletii (Duméril, 1853)
Hyla moreletii Duméril, 1853, Ann. Sci. Nat. 19:169. Syntypes (2): MNHN 767-2 individuals. Type-locality: "Verapaz," Guatemala; restricted to Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, by Smith and Taylor (1950:317).
Hyla holochlora Salvin, 1860, Proc. Biol. Soc. London, pp. 451­461[460; pl. 32, fig. 5]. Holotype: BM 1947.2.24.23. Type-locality: Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Agalychnis moreletii-Cope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev. 12:97­119[110].
Hyla moreleti-Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Centr. 1:1­56[31, pl. 13, fig. 1].
Phyllomedusa moreletii-Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 160:1­224[146, figs. 19a, 20a, 20b.]
Phyllomedusa moreleti-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[38].
Agalychnis moreletii-Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 1:1­753[112].

DISTRIBUTION: The Atlantic versant from Veracruz, Mexico, to west-central Belize and eastern Guatemala; on the Pacific versant from Guerrero, Mexico, eastward through southern Guatemala to central El Salvador. In Guatemala, this species is widespread across the northern highlands, including the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, mountains of Alta Verapaz, and Sierra de las Minas. In eastern Guatemala, it has been taken from the Sierra de Santa Cruz and the Sierra de Merendón. The species occurs along the southern highlands of Guatemala. It has an elevational distribution is from about 500 to 2130 m. Mayan, Quecchian, Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, and Fuegan Area (map).


Genus Duellmanohyla Campbell and Smith, 1992
Duellmanohyla Campbell and Smith, 1992, Herpetologica 48:163. Type-species: Hyla uranochroa Cope, 1876, by designation of Campbell and Smith (1992:163).

CONTENT: Eight species.


Duellmanohyla schmidtorum (Stuart, 1954)
Ptychohyla schmidtorum Stuart, 1954, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 67:170. Holotype: FMNH 20755. Type-locality: Finca El Porvenir, 17 km., airline, W San Marcos, San Marcos, Guatemala; [probably 1700-2000 meters].
Ptychohyla schmidtorum-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[41].
Ptychohyla schmidtorum schmidtorum-Duellman, 1963, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15:205­249[331].
Duellmanohyla schmidtorum-Campbell and Smith, 1992, Herpetologica 48:153­167[164].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific versant of extreme southeastern Oaxaca and southeastern Chiapas, Mexico, and southwestern Guatemala. The distributional hiatus across most of Chiapas may be an artifact of collecting. In Guatemala the species occurs on the southern slopes of Volcán Santa María in lower cloud forest forest. Its elevational distribution is from 500 to 2200 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Duellmanohyla soralia (Wilson and MCCranie, 1985)
Hyla soralia Wilson and McCranie, 1985, Herpetologica 48:165. Holotype: KU 195554. Type locality: Quebrada Grande (15š05'N, 88š55'W), 1370 m, Sierra de Omoa, Departamento Copán, Honduras.
Ptychohyla soralia-XXXXXXXXX.
Duellmanohyla soralia-Campbell and Smith, 1992, Herpetologica 48:153­167[165].

DISTRIBUTION:
Sierra of Omoa of northwestern Honduras and the Sierra del Merendón of adjacent Guatemala. Merendón Area (map).


Genus Hyla Laurenti, 1768


Hyla Laurenti, 1768, Synop. Rept., p. 32. Type-species: Hyla viridis Laurenti, 1768 [= Rana arborea Linnaeus, 1758], by subsequent designation of Stejneger (1907:75).

CONTENT: Many species in the Old and New World; the number of species may be expected to decrease as monotypic lineages are identified and designated as separate genera.


Hyla bocourti Mocquard, 1899
Hyla regilla-Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Centr. 1:1­56[31, pl. 13, figs. 2-2a]. [In part.]
Hyliola bocourti Mocquard, 1899, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., ser. 1(4):341. Syntypes (14): MNHN 1266-2 individuals, 6370-6 individuals, 6371-6 individuals. Type-locality: Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Hyla bocourti-Günther, 1901, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[263].
Hyla walkeri-Duellman, 1970, Mongr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 1:1­753[510]. [In part; see Remarks.]
Hyla bocourti-Campbell and Lawson, 1992, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington.

DISTRIBUTION: The Sierra de las Minas and the highlands of Atla Verapaz, Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about 1325 to 1500 m. Quecchian and Minan Area (map).


Hyla bromeliacea Schmidt, 1933
Hyla bromeliacea, Schmidt, 1933, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool Ser. 20:19. Holotype: FMNH 4718. Type-locality: Mountains west of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 4500 feet.

DISTRIBUTION: The Atlantic versant from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of Guatemala eastward through the northern and eastern highlands of Guatemala to northwestern Honduras. In Guatemala, this species is known from the following mountain ranges: Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Sierra de Xucaneb and associated ranges in Alta Verapaz, Sierra de las Minas, Sierra de Santa Cruz, and the Sierra de Merendón. Its elevational distribution is from about 900 to 1650 m. Quecchian, Minan, Cuchumatan, and Merendón Areas (map).

Hyla dendrophasma Campbell, Smith, and Acevedo, 2000
Hyla dendrophasma Campbell, Smith, and Acevedo, 2000, Herpetologica 56:250­256[251]. Holotype: UTA A-51838. Type-locality: "along the Riachuelo Sancapech, Finca San Francisco, near Aldea Yalambojoch, Huehuetenango, Guatemala. This locality is located at about 16š01'56" N and 91š33'29" W at 1270 m."

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type-locality in the northwestern portion of the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes at an elevation of 1270 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Hyla ebraccata Cope, 1874
Hyla ebraccata Cope, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 26:69. Holotype: ANSP 2079. Type-locality: Nicaragua; Dunn and Stuart, 1951, reported that the original label gave the locality "Machuca." Duellman (1970:227) placed Machuca in Zelaya Province, Nicaragua.
Hyla leucophyllata-Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Ecaud. collect. British Mus., 503pp.[387]. [In part.]
Hyla weyerae-Taylor, 1945, XXXX[633]. Holotype: KU 34850. Type-locality: Esquinas Forest Preserve, Las Esquinas, between Palmar and Golfito, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica.
Hyla ebraccata-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[35].

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant of southern Mexico from southern Veracruz and northern Oaxaca eastward across the central Petén region of Guatemala to Belize, and from about central Nicaragua southeastward through Costa Rica and Panama, where it occurs on both coasts, to the Chocó of Colombia. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 600 m. Petén Area (map).


Hyla loquax Gaige and Stuart, 1934
Hyla loquax Gaige and Stuart, 1934, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 281:1. Holotype: UMMZ 75446. Type-locality: Ixpuc Aguada, N of La Libertad, El Petén, Guatemala.
Hyla stadelmani Schmidt, 1936, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 49:43­50[45]. Holotype: MCZ 21310. Type-locality: Subirana Valley, Departamento Yoro, Honduaras.
Hyla axillamembrana Shannon and Werler, 1955, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 58:360­386[383]. Holotype: UIMNH 67059. Type-locality: 8 kilometers south of Lago de Catemaco on San Andrés Tuxtla­Minatitlán road, Veracruz, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant of southern Mexico from southern Veracruz and northern Oaxaca eastward and southward through Central America to Costa Rica, exclusive of most of the northern half of the Yucatán Peninsula. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 500 m. Petén, Mican, and Quecchian Areas (map).

Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886
Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 23:271­287[281]. Syntypes (2): USNM 13472-2 individuals, now apparently lost. Type-locality: Chiriquí, Panama.
Hyla microcephala Boulenger, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1898:473­482[481]. Syntypes (2): BM 1947.2.23.28­29. Type-locality: Bebedero, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. [Not Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886.]
Hyla underwoodi Boulenger, 1899, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)3:273­277[277]. [Substitute name for Hyla microcephala Boulenger, 1898; preoccupied by Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886.]
Hyla microcephala underwoodi-Smith, 1951, Herpetologica 7:184­190[187].
Hyla microcepahala martini Smith, 1951, Herpetologica 7:184­190[187]. Holotype: UIMNH 20965. Type-locality: Encarnación, Campeche, Mexico
Hyla microcephala martini-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[36].

DISTRIBUTION: On the Atlantic lowlands from southern Mexico from southern Veracruz and northern Oaxaca eastward through Central America to Nicaragua, where it crosses over to the Pacific lowlands and continues through Costa Rica and Panama into South America. In Guatemala, this species is widely distributed in the northern and eastern lowlands at elevations from near sea level to about 750 m. Petén and Mican Areas (map).


Hyla minera Wilson, McCranie, and Williams, 1985
Hyla minera Wilson, McCranie, and Williams, 1985, Herpetologica 41:145.. Holotype: MVZ 130790. Type-locality: 4.2 km (by road) S Purulhá, 176o m, Departamento Baja Verapaz, Guatemala..

DISTRIBUTION: The Sierra de las Minas and the Sierra de Santa Cruz of Guatemala to the Maya Mountains of Belize. This species probably occurs in the mountains of Alta Verapaz as well. Its elevational distribution is from about 700 to 1830 m. Quecchian, Minan, and Mayan Areas (map).


Hyla perkinsi Campbell and Brodie, 1992
Hyla perkinsi Campbell and Brodie, 1992, J. Herpetol. 26:187. Holotype: UTA A-24637. Type locality: Finca Chiblac (15š53'N, 91š16'W, 1080 m), 21.1 km (by road) NNE of Barillas, Departamento Huehuetenango, Guatemala..

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the vicinity of the type-locality in the northern Sierra de los Cuchumatanes in Huehuetenango, Guatemala, at elevations of 1000­1100 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Hyla picta (Günther, 1901)
Hylella picta Günther, 1901, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[286, pl. 73, fig. C]. Holotype: BM 1947.2.22.62. Type-locality: Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
Hyla picta-Nieden, 1923, Tierreich 46, 584 pp.[284].
Hyla picta-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[36].

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic lowlands and foothills of Mexico from southeastern San Luis Potosí southeastward through northern and eastern Guatemala to northern Honduras. In Guatemala, this species occurs at elevations of about sea-level to 600 m. Petén and Quecchian Areas (map).


Hyla robertmertensi Taylor, 1937
Hyla robertmertensi Taylor, 1937, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 50:43, pl. 2, figs. 3-7. Holotype: FMNH 100096. Type-locality: near Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico.
Hyla robertmertensi-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[36].

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific lowlands of Mexico from southeastern Oaxaca southeastward through Guatemala to El Salvador. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 700 m. Escuintlan, Jalapan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Hyla salvaje Wilson, McCranie, and Williams, 1985
Hyla salvaje Wilson, McCranie, and Williams, 1985, Herpetologica 41:141. Holotype: KU 195549. Type-locality: Quebrada Grande (15š05'N, 88š55'W), Departamento Copán, Honduras.

DISTRIBUTION: The Sierra de Omoa in northwestern Honduras and the highlands near La Unión, Guatemala, at XXX m. Jalapan Area (map).

Hyla walkeri Stuart, 1954
Hyla walkeri Stuart, 1954, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 67:165. Holotype: UMMZ 106817. Type-locality: Aserradero San Lorenzo (12 km., airline, slightly east of north of Jalapa), Jalapa, Guatemala; 1725 meters.
Hyla euphorbiacea biseriata Lynch in Smith, Langebartel, and Williams, 1964, Illinois Biol. Monogr. 32:1­80[24]. [Nomen nudum.]

DISTRIBUTION: The Meseta Central of Chiapas (Mexico) to the southeastern highlands of Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about 1450 to 2340 m. Jalapan and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Genus Phrynohyas Fitzinger, 1843
Phrynohyas Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 106 pp.[30]. Type species: Hyla zonata Spix, 1824 [= Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768], by monotypy and declaration of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (Opinion No. 520, 1958).
Acrodytes Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 106 pp.[30]. Type-species: Hyla venulosa Daudin, 1803 [= Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768], by monotypy; generic name suppressed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (Opinion No. 520) for purposes of the Law of Priority, but not for those of the Law of Homonymy.
Scytopis Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14:355. Type-species: Scytopis hebes Cope, 1862, by monotypy.

CONTENT: Five species.


Phrynohyas venulosa Laurenti, 1768
Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med., 214 pp.[31]. Based on a plate in Seba, 1734, Locup. Rerum Nat. Thes., vol. 1:1­178[pl. 72, fig. 4].
Hyla venulosa-Daudin, 1803, Hist. Nat. Rept., p. 71.
Hyla zonata Spix, 1824, Anim. Nova Brasiliam, 53 pp.[41]. Holotype: Unknown. Type locality: from Lago Teffé at mouth of Rio Teffé, Amazonas, Brasil.
Hyla bufonia Spix, 1824, Anim. Nova Brasiliam, 53 pp.[42]. Holotype: Unknown. Type locality: Eca, Amazonas, Brasil.
Hyla vermiculata Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gén. Hist. Nat. Rept., p.563. Holotype: MNHNP 4797. Type-locality: "Amerique."
Phrynohyas zonata-Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 106 pp.[30].
Acrodytes venulosa-Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 106 pp.[30].
Hyla lichenosa Günther, 1859, Cat. Batr. Sal. Collect. Brit. Mus., 160 pp.[102]. Lectotype: BM 1936.12.3.119. Type-locality: Amazonas, Brasil.
Scytopis venulosus-Cope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)6:67­112[85].
Hyla spilomma Cope, 1877, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 17:85­98[86]. Holotype: Probably originally in the USNM, now apparently lost. Type-locality: Cosamaloapam, Veracruz, Mexico.
Hyla paenulata Brocchi, 1879, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (7)1:19­24[21]. Holotype: Originally in MNHNP, now apparently lost. Type-locality: western [southern] versant of Guatemala.
Hyla nigropunctata Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Ecaud. Collect. Brit. Mus, 2nd ed., 503 pp.[366]. Syntypes (2): BM 59.9.20.2 and 80.10.31.20. Type-locality: Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
Acrodytes inflata Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:41­45[63]. Holotype: FMNH 100046. Type-locality: La Venta, Guerrero, Mexico.
Acrodytes spilomma-Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:41­45[64].
Acrodytes modesta Taylor and Smith, 1945, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 95:521­613[594; pl. 27, fig. 2; pl. 28, figs. 2­3]. Holotype: USNM 115013. Type-locality: Cruz de Piedra, near Acacoyagua, Chiapas, Mexico.
Acrodytes spilomma-Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U. S. Natl Mus. 194:1­118[75].
Phrynohyas inflata-Duelmman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 96:1­47[19].
Phrynohyas latifasciata Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 96:1­47[24]. Holotype: BM 83.2.7.1. Type-locality: Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico.
Phrynohyas modesta-Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 96:1­47[25; pl. 3, fig. 2].
Phrynohyas spilomma-Duellman, 1956, Mis. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 96:1­47[28; pl. 4, figs. 1­2].
Phrynohyas corasterias Shannon and Humphrey, 1957, Herpetologica 13:15­18[15]. Holotype: UIMNH 67060. Type-locality: 4.8 miles east of San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico.
Phrynohyas modesta-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[37].
Phrynohuas spilomma-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[37].
Hyla venulosa venulosa-Rivero, 1964, Caribbean J. Sci. 4:307­319[311].

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico from central Tamaulipas on the Atlantic and from southern Sinaloa on the Pacific southeastward through Mexico and Central America to Costa Rica, where is is restricted to the Pacific versant, except in central Panama, and continues through southern Central America into South America where it is widespread in the lowlands east of the Andes. In Guatemala, this species occurs in the northern lowlands, the Río Motagua Valley, and Pacific lowlands. It is distributed at elevations of 0­1000 m. Petén, Minan, Zacapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Plectrohyla Brocchi, 1877
Plectrohyla Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris (7)1:92­93[92]. Type-species: Plectrohyla guatemalensis Brocchi, 1877, by original designation.
Cauphias Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris (7)1:122­132[129]. [Substitute name for Plectrohyla Brocchi, 1877.]

CONTENT: About 18 species.


Plectrohyla acanthodes Duellman and Campbell, 1992
Plectrohyla acanthodes Duellman and Campbell, 1992, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 181:1­32[2]. Holotype: KU 58824. Type-locality: "from a stream 6.2 km (by road) S of Rayón Mescalapa, 1690 m, Chiapas, Mexico (17š10' N, 92š58' W)."

DISTRIBUTION: Northern slopes of the Meseta Central of Chiapas (Mexico) and the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes of Guatemala. The species is known from elevations of 1540 to 2250 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Plectrohyla avia Stuart, 1953
Plectrohyla avia Stuart, 1952, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 65:1­12 [6]. Holotype: UMMZ 102280. Type-locality: Granja Lorena (about 10 km., airline, NW Colomba), Quezaltenango, Guatemala; 1750 meters.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) and western Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about 1685 to 2200 m. Fuegan Area (map).


Plectrohyla glandulosa (Boulenger, 1883)
Hyla glandulosa Boulenger, 1883, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)12:161­167[164]. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.20.40­41. Type-locality: "Guatemala."
Plectrohyto
[sic, = Plectrohyla] cotzicensis Stuart, 1948, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 61:17­18[17]. Holotype: UMMZ 95902. Type-locality: Source of Río Cuilco on the slopes of Cerro Cotzic about 2 km. NW Ixchiguán, San Marcos, Guatemala; about 3500 meters.
Plectrohyla cotzicensis-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[39].

DISTRIBUTION: The Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes and central and southern highlands of Guatemala,, and the highlands of northwestern El Salvador and adjacent Honduras at elevations of 2400­3500 m. Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Jalapan Areas (map).


Plectrohyla guatemalensis Brocchi, 1877
Plectrohyla guatemalensis, Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philom., ser 7(1):92­93[92]. Syntypes (2): MNHN 6332-2 individuals. Type-locality: Pacicilla [sic, = Patzicía], Chimaltenango, Guatemala.
Cauphias guatemalensis-Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philom., ser 7(1):122­132[130].
Hyla guatemalensis-Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Ecaud. collect. British Mus., 503pp.[396].
Plectrohyla guatemalensis-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:39.

DISTRIBUTION: From the highlands of southeatern Chiapas, Mexico, across the Guatemalan Plateau and adjacent highlands to northwestern El Salvador and adjacent Honduras. It occurs at elevations of 990­2500 m. Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Jalapan Areas (map).


Plectrohyla hartwegi Duellman, 1968
Plectrohyla hartwegi Duellman, 1968, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 17:559­578[576]. Holotype: UMMZ 94428. Type-locality: Barrejonel, 19 kilometers west of Chicomuselo, Chiapas, Mexico, 1000 m.

DISTRIBUTION: The highlands of extreme southeastern Oaxaca through the Sierra Madre del Sur of Chiapas (Mexico) to the Pacific highlands of south western Guatemala, and the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes and Alta Verapaz highlands at elevations of 925­2520 m. Cuchumatan, Minan, Chuacús, and probably Fuegan Areas (map).


Plectrohyla ixil Stuart, 1942
Plectrohyla ixil Stuart, 1942, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 455:4. Holotype: UMMZ 89092. Type-locality: Finca San Francisco about 25 km. NE Nebaj, El Quiché, Guatemala; about 1175 meters.

DISTRIBUTION: The Atlantic slopes of Chiapas, Mexico, and northwestern Guatemala. This species occurs at elevations of 1175­1690 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Plectrohyla matudai Hartweg, 1941
Plectrohyla matudai Hartweg, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 437:1­10[5]. Holotype: UMMZ 88863. Type-locality: Cloud forest on Mt. Ovando, District of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico; 1800 meters.
Plectrohyla brachycephala Taylor, 1949, Am. Mus. Novitat. 1437:1­21[16]. Holotype: AMNH 53761. Type-locality: tributary of the Río Ostuta, at the foot of the Sierra Madre between Sierra Madre and Cerro Atravesado, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Plectrohyla matudai brachycephala-Bumzahem and Smith, 1954, Herpetologica 10:61­66[62].
Plectrohyla matudai matudai-Bumzahem and Smith, 1954, Herpetologica 10:63.
Plectrohyla matudai-Duellman and Campbell, 1992, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 181:1­32[14].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific slopes and highlands from extreme southeastern Oaxaca through Chiapas (Mexico) and southwestern Chiapas to the Las Nubes Block in eastern Guatemala; the species also occurs in pine-oak forest in the upper tributaries of the Grijalva Depression in western Guatemala and on Cerro Azul in northwestern Honduras. It occurs at elevations of 700­2300 m. Fuegan, Cuchumatan, Cuilcan, and Jalapan Areas (map).


Plectrohyla pokomchi Duellman and Campbell, 1984
Plectrohyla pokomchi Duellman and Campbell, 1984, Copeia 1984:390­397[394]. Holotype: KU 190231. Type-locality: Río Sananjá, 1585­1707 m, 3.5 km east of La Unión Barrios, Departamento Baja Verapaz, Guatemala (15š11'N, 90š10'W).

DISTRIBUTION: The Sierra de las Minas and nearby Sierra de Xucaneb of eastern Guatemala at elevations of 1400­1900 m. Quecchian and Minan Areas (map).


Plectrohyla quecchi Stuart, 1942
Plectrohyla quecchi Stuart, 1942, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 455:1. Holotype: UMMZ 89086. Type-locality: Barranca Las Palmas about 2 km. N Finca Los Alpes, 43 km., airline, E and slightly S Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; about 1015 meters.

DISTRIBUTION: The northern highlands of Guatemala in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes, the Alta­Baja Verapaz highlands, and the Sierra de las Minas at elevations of 615­1850 m. Cuchumatan, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).


Plectrohyla sagorum Hartweg, 1941
Plectrohyla sagorum Hartweg, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 437:2, pl. 1, figs. 1 3. Holotype: UMMZ 88862. Type-locality: Cloud forest on Mt. Ovando, District of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico; 1800 meters.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific slopes of the Sierra Madre in southeastern Chiapas (Mexico) to the volcanos of southwestern Guatemala. A single record exists for the highlands of northwestern El Salvador. The elevational distribution is 1450­2050 m. Fuegan and probably Jalapan Area (map).


Plectrohyla tecunumani Duellman and Campbell, 1984
Plectrohyla tecunumani Duellman and Campbell, 1984, Copeia 1984:390­397[391]. Holotype: LACM 39956. Type-locality: A cave 1 km east of Chemal, 3395 m, Departamento Huehuetenango, Guatemala (15š27'N, 91š31'W).

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from a single, small stream flowing through a cave and a small stream flowing through a grassy meadow in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes in western Guatemala at elevations of 3200­3400 m. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Plectrohyla teuchestes Duellman and Campbell, 1992
Plectrohyla teuchestes Duellman and Campbell, 1992, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 181:1­32[15]. Holotype: KU 58831. Type-locality: Finca Los Alpes, ca. 1000 m, Departamento Alta Verapaz, Guatemala (15š22'N, 90š01'W).

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the vicinity of the type-locality in the highlands of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, at an elevation of about 1000 m. Quecchian Area (map).


Genus Ptychohyla Taylor, 1944
Ptychohyla Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 30:41. Type species: Ptychohyla adipoventris Taylor, 1944 [= Hyla leonhardschultzei Ahl, 1934].

CONTENT:


Ptychohyla euthysanota (Kellogg, 1928)
Hyla euthysanota Kellogg, 1928, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 41:123. Holotype: USNM 73296. Type-locality: Los Esesmiles, Chalatenango, El Salvador; 6400 feet.
Hyla rozellae Taylor, 1942, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28:67­89[78]. Holotype: USNM 115039. Type-locality: Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico.
Ptychohyla bogerti Taylor, 1949, Am. Mus. Novit. 1437:1­21[13]. Holotype: AMNH 51847. Type-locality: Río Grande, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Ptychohyla euthysanota -Duellman, 1961, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 13:351.
Ptychohyla rozellae-Gorham, 1963, Canadian Field-Nat. 77:13­48[24].

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific slopes from southeastern Oaxaca, Mexico, through Chiapas and Guatemala to north-central El Salvador. In Guatemala, this species occurs in the highlands of the southern volcanic cordillera and the southeastern highlands at elevations of 660 to 2200 m. Jalapan and Fuegan Areas (map).


Ptychohyla macrotympanum (Tanner, 1957)
Hyla macrotympanum Tanner, 1957, Great Basin Nat. 17:52­56[52]. Holotype: BYU 13752. Type-locality: 10 miles E Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas, Mexico.
Ptychohyla macrotympanum-Duellman, 1961, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 13:349­357[351].
Ptychohyla euthysanota macrotympanum-Duellman, 1963, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15:297­249[320].
Ptychohyla macrotympanum-Campbell and Smith, 1992, Herpetologica 48:153­167[154].

DISTRIBUTION: The northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and of western Guatemala. In Guatemala, this species is found in the southwestern portion of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Ptychohyla panchoi Duellman and Campbell, 1982
Ptychohyla panchoi Duellman and Campbell, 1982, Herpetologica 38:374. Holotype: KU 190333. Type-locality: "Aldea Vista Hermosa, Municipio Los Amates, Departamento de Izabal, Guatemala....at an elevation of 600 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the northern slopes of the eastern portion of the Sierra de las Minas and the Montañas del Mico of Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about 250 to 600 m. Minan and Mican Areas (map).


Ptychohyla hypomykter McCranie and Wilson, 1993
Hyla euthysanota-Dunn and Emlen, 1932, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phildelphia 84:21­32[25]. [Not of Kellogg, 1928.]
Ptychohyla spinipollex-Stuart, 1954, Contrib. Lab. Vert. Biol. 68:1­65[48]. [Not of Kellogg, 1928.]
Ptychohyla spinipollex-Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 1:1­753[544]. [In part.]
Ptychohyla merazi Wilson and McCranie, 1989, Herpetologica 45:10. Holotype KU 204213. Type-locality: Quebrada del Oro (15š38'N, 86š47'W), 880 m, tributary of Río Viejo, south slope of Cerro Búfalo, Cordillera de Nombre de Dios, Departamento Atlántida, Honduras.
Ptchohyla hypomykter McCranie and Wilson, 1993, Southw. Nat. 38(2): 100­104[101]. Holotype: USNM 319918. Type-locality: "beside the Quebrada Cañon Oscuro (15š05'N, 88š56'W), 1150­1170 m elevation, a stream on Montaña Cerro Azul below Quebrada Grande, Departamento de Copán, Honduras.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic slopes from Guatemala to Nicaragua at elevations of 500­2000 m. Quecchian, Minan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Ptychohyla sanctaecrucis Campbell and Smith, 1992
Ptychohyla sanctaecrucis Campbell and Smith, 1992, Herpetologica 48:155. Holotype: UTA A 30170. Type-locality: "near Chinamococh, Finca Semuc, Departamento de Izabal, Guatemala" at about 640 m elevation.

DISTRIBUTION: The Sierra de Santa Cruz in the Department of Izabal, Guatemala. It occurs at elevations of 366­1150 m. Quecchian Area (map).


Genus Scinax Wagler, 1830
Scinax Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., 354 pp[201]. Type-species: Hyla aurata Wied, 1825, by subsequent designation of Stejneger (1907).
Ololygon Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 106 pp.[31]. Type-species: Hyla strigilata Spix, 1824, by monotypy.

CONTENT: About 60 species.


Scinax staufferi (Cope, 1865)
Hyla staufferi Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 17:195. Holotype: USNM 15317. Type-locality: Orizaba, Mexico.
Hyla eximia staufferi-Cope, 1887, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 32:1­98[14].
Hyla eximia-Günther, 1901 [1885­1902], Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[261]. [In part.]
Hyla culex Dunn and Emlen, 1932, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phildelphia 84:21­32[24]. Holotype: MCZ 16098. Type-locality: Tela, Departamento Atlantidad [CK], Honduras.
Hyla staufferi-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[36].
Hyla staufferi staufferi-León, 1969, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 18:505­545[537].
Ololygon staufferi-Frost, 1985, Ampib. Species World, p. 165.
Scinax staufferi-Duellman, 1993, Amphib. Species World: Add. Correct., 104.

DISTRIBUTION: Lowland and foothills of Mexico from southern Tamaulipas on the Atlantic and Guerrero on the Pacific southeastward through Central America to northwestern Costa Rica, and on the Pacific lowlands from western to central Panama. It occurs at elevations from near sea-level to 1200 m. Petén, Zacapan, Salaman, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Smilisca Cope
Smilisca Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 17:194. Type-species: Smilisca daulinia Cope, 1865 [= Hyla baudinii Duméril and Bibron, 1841].

CONTENT: Six species.


Smilisca baudinii (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)
Hyla baudinii Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gén. 8:564. Holotype: MNHN 4798. Type locality: "Mexique;" restricted to Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico, elevation 925 m, by Smith and Taylor (1950).
Hyla vanvlietii Baird, 1854, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7:59­62[54]. Holotype: USNM 3256. Type-locality: Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, elevation 15 m.
Hyla vociferans Baird, 1859, Rept. U.S. Mexican Bound. Surv., p. 35. [Nomen nudum; figs. 11­13 on Pl. 38 are designated by this name, which is not mentioned anywhere in the text.]
Hyla muricolor Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14:346­359[359]. Holotype: USNM 25097. Type-locality: Hacienda Mirador, Veracruz, Mexico, elevation 1020 m.
Smiliscus daulinia Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 17:185­198[194]. [Specific epithet a lapsus for baudinii.]
Smilisca baudinii-Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1:1­104[31].
Hyla baudini-Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Centr.1:1­56[29, pl. 14, figs. 4-4b].
Hyla pansosana Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Philom. 7(1):125. Holotype: MNHN 6313. Type locality: Panzos, Mexico [in error; this locality is actually in Guatemala].
Smilisca baudinii baudinii-Stejneger and Barbour, 1923, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., 2nd ed., 171 pp.[11].
Hyla beltrani Taylor, 1942, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28:295­323[306]. Holotype: UIMNH 25046. Type-locality: Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, elevation 140 m.
Hyla manisorum Taylor, 1954, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 35:597­639[630]. Holotype: KU 34927. Type-locality: Batán, Limón Province, Costa Rica, elevation 15 m.
Smilisca baudini-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[41].

DISTRIBUTION: On the Atlantic from extreme southern Texas, USA, and Tamaulipas, Mexico, through Mexico, including the Yucatán Peninsula, and Central America to northeastern Costa Rica; on the Pacific from southern Sonora, Mexico, southward through Mexico and Central America to northwestern Costa Rica. In Guatemala, this species is widespread, ranging from near sea level to at least 1500 m. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chuacús, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Smilisca cyanosticta (Smith, 1953)
Hyla phaeota-Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 194:1­118[88].
Hyla phaeota cyanosticta Smith, 1953, Herpetologica 8:150­152[150]. Holotype: USNM 111147. Type-locality: Piedras Negras, El Petén, Guatemala, elevation 100 m.
Smilisca phaeota [cyanosticta, by implication]-Starrett, 1960, Copeia 1960:303, fig. 3.
Smilisca phaeota cyanosticta-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[42].
Smilisca cyanosticta-Duellman and Cole, 1965, Syst. Zool. 14:139­143[141].

DISTRIBUTION: Foothills of the Atlantic versant from northern Oaxaca and the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas of southern Veracruz, Mexico, eastward through northern Guatemala to the mountains of eastern Guatemala. In Guatemala, this species occurs from about 200 to 750 m. Petén, Quecchian, and Mican Areas (map)


Genus Triprion Cope, 1866
Pharyngodon Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 17:193 [preoccupied by Pharyngodon Diesing, 1861; Nemathelminthes]. Type-species: Pharyngodon petasatus Cope, 1865.
Triprion Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18: 127 [replacement name for Pharyngodon Cope]. Type-species: Pharyngodon petasatus Cope, 1865.
Diaglena Cope, 1887, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 32:1­98[12]. Type-species: Triprion spatulatus Günther, 1882, by monotypy.

CONTENT: Two species.

Triprion petasatus (Cope, 1865)
Pharyngodon petasatus Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 17: 193. Holotype: USNM 12287. Type-locality: Cenote Tamanché [between Mérida and Progreso], near Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.
Triprion petasatus-Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:127.
Triprion petasatus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[42].

DISTRIBUTION: Lowlands of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, southward to central Petén of Guatemala and the dry interior valleys of northern Honduras. It occurs at elevations from near sea-level to about 300 m. Peten and possibly Zacapan Areas (map).


FAMILY CENTROLENIDAE


Genus Hyalinobatrachium Ruíz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991
Hyalinobatrachium Ruíz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991, Lozania 57:23. Type-species: Hylella fleischmanni Boettger, 1893, by original designation..

CONTENT: Abou 25 species.


Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Boettger, 1893)
Hylella fleischmanni Boettger, 1893, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 1892­1893:251. Lectotype: SMF 3760, designated by Mertens (1967:42). Type-locality: "San José, [Provinica San José,] Costa Rica."
Centrolenella viridissima
Taylor, 1942, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 28:XXX[75; pl. 9, figs. 2­2b]. Holotype: FMNH 100093. Type-locality: Agua del Obispo, Guerrero Mexico.
Centrolenella fleischmanni-Smith and Taylor, 1948, XXXX[68]. [In part.]
Cochranella viridissima-Taylor, 1951, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 64:XXX[35].

DISTRIBUTION: On the Atlantic from northwestern Oaxaca and on the Pacific from Guerrero, Mexico, southward through Central America to Suriname and Ecuador, In Gautemala, this species occurs at elevations of 10­1610 m. Petén, Quecchian, Minan, Mican, and Fuegan Areas (map).



FAMILY MICROHYLIDAE


Genus Gastrophryne Fitzinger, 1843
Gastrophryne Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 33. Type-species: Engystoma rugosum Duméril and Bibron, 1841 [= Engystoma carolinensis Holbrook, 1836], by monotypy.

CONTENT: Five species.


Gastrophryne elegans (Boulenger, 1882)
Engystoma elegans Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Brit. Mus., ed 2, [162]. Holotype: BM 1947.2.11.86. Type-locality: Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico.
Gastrophryne elegans-Stejneger, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 23:166.
Microhyla elegans-Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bul. U.S. Natl. Mus. 194:1­118[93].
Gastrophryne elegans-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[43].

DISTRIBUTION: On the Atlantic versant from southern Veracruz (Mexico) through Guatemala to northern Honduras at elevations of 0­300 m. Petén Area (map).


Gastrophryne usta (Cope, 1866)
Engystoma ustum Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:131. Holotype: USNM 24965. Type-locality: "Guadalaxara" [= Guadalajara], Jalisco, Mexico; in error according to Nelson (1972:119), who corrected the type-locality to "Tecoman, Colima, Mexico."
Eupemphix gadovii
Boulenger, 1903, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)12:552. Syntypes (3): BM 1945.12.19.9­11. Type-locality: San Mateo del Mar, near Tehuantepec, Mexico.
Gastrophryne usta [gadovi]-Stejneger, 1910, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 23:166.
Microhyla usta gadovii-Smith and Taylor, 1948, XXX[94].
Gastrophryne usta gadovi-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[43].

DISTRIBUTION: Central Sinaloa and central Veracruz to Chiapas (Mexico) and El Salvador on the Pacific versant at elevations of 0­500 m. Escuintlan Area (map).


Genus Hypopachus Keferstein, 1867
Hypopachus Keferstein, 1867, Nachr. Konig. Gesell. Wiss. Gottingen 18:351. Type-species: Hypopachus seebachii Keferstein, 1867 [= Engystoma variolosum Cope, 1866].

CONTENT: Three species.


Hypopachus barberi Schmidt, 1939
Hypopachus inguinalis Cope, 1869, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 11:166. Holotype: Possibly USNM 6792. Type-locality: Verapaz, near Cobán), Guatemala.
Hypopachus barberi Schmidt, 1939, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 24:1, fig. 1. Holotype: FMNH 1812. Type-locality: Tecpán, Sololá [in error for Chimaltenango], Guatemala.
Hypopachus simus Stuart, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54:125. Holotype: UMMZ 89095. Type-locality: Nebaj, El Quiché, Guatemala; about 1990 m.
Hypopachus aquae Stuart, 1952, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 65:1­12[7]. Holotype: UMMZ 102282. Type-locality: Finca San Rafael at Dueñas, Sacatepéquez, Guatemala, 1475 m.
Hypopachus aquae-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[44].
Hypopachus barberi-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[44].
Hypopachus inguinalis-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[45].

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala, and El Salvador at elevations of 1400 to 2300 m. Quecchian, Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Cuilcan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Hypophachus championi Stuart, 1940
Hypopachus championi Stuart, 1940, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 53:19. Holotype: UMMZ 85533. Type-locality: About 1 km. S San Geronimo [=Jerónimo], Baja Verapaz, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Salama Basin of central Guatemala at elevations between 1000 and 1500 m. Salaman Area (map).


Hypopachus variolosus (cope, 1866)
Engystoma variolosum Philadelphia 18:131. Holotype: USNM 6488. Type-locality: "Arriba" [= uplands of], Costa Rica.
Hypopachus cuneus nigroreticulatus
Taylor, 1939, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 26:XXX[518, pl. 59]. Holotype: FMNH 100064. Type-locality: Encarnación, Campeche, Mexico.
Hypopachus cuneus nigroreticulatus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[44].

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Texas (USA) and Sonora (Mexico) to Costa Rica at elevations mostly below 1500 m. Petén and Zacapan Areas (map),


FAMILY RANIDAE


Genus Rana Linnaeus, 1758
Rana Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., [210]. Type-species: Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758.

CONTENT: about 275 species.


Rana berlandieri Baird, 1854
Rana berlandieri Baird, 1854, Rep. U.S.­Mex. Bound. Surv. 2:27. Syntypes: USNM 3293 [9 specimens], MCZ 155 [2 specimens]; USNM 131513 reported as a syntype by Cochran (1961), who noted that two specimens of USNM 3293 were exchanged to the MCZ. USNM 131513 designated lectotype by Pace (1974). Type-locality: "southern Texas generally"; lectotype from "Brownsville, Texas", USA.
Rana halecina berlandieri-Cope, 1875, Check-list N. Am. Batr. Rept.:32.
Rana halecina austricola Cope, 1886, Proc. Am Philos. Soc. 23:517. Types: XXXX. Type locality: XXXXX.
Rana virescens austricola Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 34:398. Types: XXXX. Type locality: not stated; designated as "Matamoros, Tamaulipas", Mexico, by Schmidt (1953).
Rana virescens var. austricola-Ives, 1891, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1891:461.
Rana halecina var. austricola-Boulenger, 1919, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9)3:413.
Rana pipiens berlandieri-Schmidt, 1941, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 22:487.
Rana pipiens austricola-Shannon and Werler, 1955, Herpetologica 11:85.
Rana pipiens-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[46]. [In part.]
Rana (Pantherana) berlandieri-Dubois, 1992, Bull Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 61:331.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern United States (central and western Texas, southern New Mexico) southward through the lowlands of eastern Mexico, northern and eastern Guatemala to possibly lower Central America. In Guatemala this species occurs at elevations from about sea level to 1500 m. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Minan, and Zacapan Area (map).

Rana forreri Boulenger, 1883
Rana forreri Boulenger, 1883, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)11:343. Holotype: BM 1882.12.5.7. Type-locality: "Presidio", Sinaloa, Mexico.
Rana halecina var. forreri-Boulenger, 1919, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9)3:413.
Rana pipiens
-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[46]. [In part.]
Rana lecontei Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Centr. 1:1­56[14; pl. 4, figs. 1­1c]. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: XXXX. {{CK placement here}}
Rana halecina Brocchi, 1881, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Centr. 1:1­56[10]. Holotype: XXXX. Type locality: XXXX.
Rana berlandieri forreri-XXXXX.
Rana forreri-J. Frost, 1982, Syst. Zool. 31:XX. [Removed from the synonymy of Rana berlandieri.]
Rana (Pantherana) forreri-Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 61:331.

DISTRIBUTION: Northwestern Mexico (southern Sonora) southward along the Pacific coastal plain to northwestern Costa Rica. In Guatemala, this species occurs on the south coast from about sea level to 700 m. Escuintlan and Fuegan Areas (map).


Rana juliani Hillis and de Sá, 1988
Rana juliani Hillis and de Sá, 1988, Herpetol. Monogr. 2:7. Holotype: UTA A-9068. Type locality: Southwest end of Litle Quartz Ridge, Maya Mountains (16š24'N, 89š06'W, 915 m), Toledo District, Belize.

DISTRIBUTION: Maya Mountains, Belize, and possibly into Guatemala. It is know from elevations of 450­920 m. Mayan Area (map).


Rana macroglossa Brocchi, 1877
Rana macroglossa Brocchi, 1877, Bull Soc. Philomath. Paris (7)1:175­179[177]. Syntypes: MNHNP 6321, 6321A, 6321B; MNHNP designated lectotype by Smith, Lynch, and Reese (1966). Type-locality: Plateau of Guatemala.
Rana pipiens
-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[46]. [In part.]

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Guaemala above 1500 m. Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, and Jalapan Area (map).


Rana maculata Brocchi, 1877
Rana macroglossa Brocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7)1:175­179[178]. Syntypes (3): 6412, 6412A, 6412B; MNHNP 6412A designated lectotype by Smith et al. (1966). Type locality: "Totonicapam (Mexique)" [=Totonicapán, Guatemala.
Rana melanosoma Günther, 1900, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[203, pl. 63, fig. B]. [In part.] Syntypes (3): BM 1947.2.2.14­16. Type-locality: Dueñas, Guatemala, and Hacienda Rosa de Jerico.
Rana maculata maculata-Smith, 1958, Herpetologica 15:215.
Rana maculata krukoffi Smith, 1959, Herpetologica 15:212­216[XXX]. Holotype: UIMNH 10526. Type-locality: Finca El Naranjo, Suchitepéquez, Guatemala.
Rana macroglossa-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[45].
Rana (Sierrana) maculata-Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 61:330.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico (southeastern Oaxaca east of the Isthmus of Tehunatepec) southward to central Nicaragua. In Guatemala, this species occurs at elevations of 300­2200 m. Quecchian, Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, Cuchumatna, Chimaltenangan, and Fuegan Areas (map).

Rana vaillanti Brocchi, 1877
Rana vaillanti Brocchi, 1877, Bull Soc. Philomath. Paris 7:175­179[175]. Holotype: MNHNP 6328. Type-locality: "Belize (Honduras)" [= Belize, Belize]; reported as "Mullins River, near Belize, British Honduras" by Kellog (1932).
Rana palmipes hoffmanni Müller, 1924, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 11:80. Types: ZMB. Type locality: Costa Rica.
Rana palmipes-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[46].
[In part.]
Rana vaillanti-Hillis and de Sá, 1988, Herpetol. Monogr. 2:XX. [Resurrected from synonymy of Rana palmipes.]
Rana (Lithobates) vaillanti-Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 61:330.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico (Veracruz) southward along the Atlantic coastal plain in Central America to Panama; on the Pacific coastal plain in southeastern Oaxaca and adjacent Chiapas and from Nicaragua to Colombia and Ecuador. In Guatemala, this species occurs at elevations from near sea-level to 750 m. Petén, Jalapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).



CLASS REPTILIA

 

ORDER TESTUDINES-TURTLES


FAMILY CHELONIIDAE

Genus Caretta Rafinesque, 1814


Caretta Rafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci. Palermo 2:65­68[66]. Type-species: Caretta nasuta Rafinesque (1814) [= Testudo Caretta Linnaeus, 1758], by monotypy.

CONTENT: A single species

Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758)
Testudo caretta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1: 824 pp. [197]. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: "insulas Americanas" [American Islands]; restricted to "the Bermuda Islands" by Smith and Taylor (195016), and to "Bimini, British Bahamas" by Schmidt (1953:107).
Caretta caretta-Stejneger, 1902, Rept. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1902:715, fig. 187.
Caretta caretta caretta-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:1­253[16].
Caretta caretta-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[52].

DISTRIBUTION: Worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas, but rare in eastern and central Pacific. No definite records for this species are availalbe for the Pacific Coast of Guatemala. Marine.


Genus Chelonia Brongniart, 1800


Chelonia Brongniart,1800, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philomath., Paris 2:81­82, 89­91[89]. Type-species: "les tortues de mar;" restricted to Testudo mydas Linnaeus (1758) by Latreill (1802:22).

CONTENT: Two species.

Chelonia agassizii Bocourt, 1868
Chelonia agassizi Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat., (5)10:121­122[122]. Syntypes (2): MNHN 1871-72 [now misplaced, according to Stuart, 1963]. Stated to be MNHN 9537 by Iverson (1992:83). Type-locality: "l'en bouchure du Nagualated, dans le Pacifique (Guatémala)" [Embayment of Río Nagualate, Guatemala].
Chelonia mydas agassizi- Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abhand. Senckenb. Naturf. Gesell. 41:1­62[23]. [By fiat.]
Chelonia mydas-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:1­253 [17]. [In part.]
Chelonia mydas agassizi-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[53].

DISTRIBUTION: Estern Pacific Ocean along the western coast of the Americas, west to the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), Hawaii (USA) and Papua New Guinea in tropical and subtropical waters. Marine.

Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758)
Testudo mydas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1: 824 pp. [197]. Syntypes: NRM 19, 26, and 231, according to Iverson (1992:84). Type-locality: "insulas Pelagi: insularum Adscensionis" [The Pelagie Islands and Ascencion Island]. Restricted to "Insel Ascension" by Mertens and Müller (1928:23).
Chelonia mydas mydas-Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Nat. Ges. 41:1­62[23].
Chelonia mydas-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:1­253[17]. [In part.]
Chelonia mydas mydas-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[53].

DISTRIBUTION: Woldwide in tropical and subtropical seas. Marine..

 

Genus Eretmochelys Fitzinger, 1843


Eretmochelys Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 30. Type-species: Testudo imbricata Linnaeus (1766), by original designation.

CONTENT: A single species.

Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766)
Testudo imbricata Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 350. Holotype: Wallin (1985) indicated that no type-material exists, but Smith and Smith (1979:280) stated that the holotype was ZMUU 130. Type-locality: "Mari Americano, Asiatico" [American and Asiatic seas]; restricted to "the Bermuda Islands" by Smith and Taylor (1950:106), and to "Belize, British Honduaras" by Schmidt (1953:106).
XXXXXXX bissa Rüppell, 1835, Neue Wirbel. Fauna Abyssinien, 18 pp.[4]. Holotype: SMF 7886 designated as lectotype by Mertens (1967:52). Type-locality: "in rothen Meere" [Red Sea].
Eretmochelys imbricata-Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 30.
Eretmochelys imbricata-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[53].

DISTRIBUTION: Worldwide mostly in tropical seas, but often straying into subtropical seas. Marine.


Genus Lepidochelys Fitzinger, 1843
Lepidochelys Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 30. Type-species: Thalassochelys olivacea Fitzinger (1843) [= Chelonia olivacea Eschscholtz, 1829], by original designation.

CONTENT: Two species. Only L. olivacea is definitely known from Guatemalan waters, but L. kempi may occur off the Caribbean Coast.

Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829)
Chelonia olivacea Eschscholtz, 1829, Zool. Atlas Abbild. Besschreib. neuer Thier. 1:3, pl 3. Holotype: possibly originally in Dorpat (Tartu), according to Stuart, 1963; now lost. Type-locality: Manila Bay, Philippine Islands.
Lepidochelys olivacea-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:1­253[15].
Lepidochelys olivacea olivacea-Schmidt, 1953, Checklist N. Am. Amphib. Rept., ed 6, 107. [By fiat.]

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific and Indian Oceans, also the Atlantic of South America and Africa, occasionally straying into Caribbean; tropical and subropical waters. Marine.


FAMILY DERMOCHELYIDAE

Genus Dermochelys Blainville, 1816
Dermochelys Blainville, 1816, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. 1816:111 [error in pagination, = 119]. Type-species: Testudo coriacea Vandelli (1761), by monotypy.

CONTENT: A single species.

Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761)
Testudo coriacea Vandelli, 1761, Epis. Holoth. Testudine coriacea Celeb. Carolum Linnaeum Equit. Nat. Curios. Dios. II, 12 pp.[:2]. Holotype: An unnumbered specimen in the ZMUP, according to Fretey and Bour (1980:198). Type-locality: "maris Tyrrheni oram in agro Laurentiano" according to Vandelli (1961), but given as "Mari mediterraneo, Adriatico rarius" [Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas], according to Linnaeus (1766:350). Restricted to "Palermo, Sicily" by Smith and Taylor (1950:13), and to "la côte romaine (Italie), Mer Tyrrhénienne, Méditerranée occidentale" by Fretey and Bour (1980).
Testudo coriacea-Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 350.
Dermochelys coriacea-Blainville, 1816, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. 1816:111 [error in pagination, = 119].

DISTRIBUTION: Worldwide in tropical ans subtropical seas. Marine.


FAMILY CHELYDRIDAE

Genus Chelydra Schweigger,1812
Chelydra Schweigger, 1812, Konigsb. Arch. Natur. Math. 1:292. Type-species: Chelydra lacertina Schweigger, 1812 [= Testudo serpentina Linnaeus, 1758], by subsequent designation of Fitzinger (1843:29).

CONTENT: A single species.


Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Testudo serpentina Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1: 824 pp. [199]. Holotype: NRM GA 49, according to Wallin in Iverson (1992:93). Type-locality: "Calidis regionibus." Restricted to "New Orleans, La." by Smith and Taylor (1950:21), and to "vicinity of New York City" by Schmidt (1953:86).
Emysaurus rossignonii Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 5, 10:121. Holotype: MNHNP 1230. Type-locality: Panzos, near the Río Polochic, Guatemala.
Chelydra rossignonii-Cope, 1872, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 24:23.

DISTRIBUTION: Eastern North America from southern Canada to Florida and west to New Mexico; in Atlantic drainages in Middle America from southern Mexico to Panama; northern and western Colombia and Ecuador. Petén and possibly the Zacapan Areas (map).


FAMILY DERMATEMYDIDAE


Genus Dermatemys Gray, 1847
Dermatemys Gray, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1847:55 [it is possible that the date of publication for Gray, 1847, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 20:60, actually preceeds this]. Type species: Dermatemys mawii Gray (1847), by monotypy.

CONTENT: A single species.


Dermatemys mawii Gray, 1847
Dermatemys mawii Gray, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1847:55. Holotype: BM 1947.3.4.12. Type-locality: "South America" [obviously in error]; restricted to "Alvarado, Veracruz," Mexico, by Smith and Taylor (1950:346).
Dermatemys mawii-Gray, 1847, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 20:60 [the precise date of this and the foregoing publication have not been established].
Emys Berardii Duméril and Bibron, 1851, Cat. Méthod. Collect. Rept., livr. 1, p. 11. Holotype: MNHN. Type-localty: environs of Veracruz, Mexico.
Dermatemys salvinii Gray, 1870, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1870:715. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.22.96. Type-locality: Guatemala.
Limnochelone micrura Werner, 1901, Zool. Anz. 24:298. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: Mexico; restricted to Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico by Smith and Taylor (1950:19).

DISTRIBUTION: Lowlands of the Atlantic coastal plain from southern Veracruz (Mexico) southeastward through northern Guatemala and Belize, exclusive of the northern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 200 m. Petén Area (map).


FAMILY EMYDIDAE



Genus Rhinoclemmys Fitzinger, 1835


Rhinoclemmys Fitzinger, 1835, Ann. Natur. Mus. Wien 1:103­128[115]. Type-species: Testudo dorsata Schoepff (1801) [= Testudo punctularia Daudin, 1802], by subsequent designation of Lindholm (1929:283).

CONTENT: Nine species.


Rhinoclemmys areolata (Duméril and Bibron, 1851)
Emys areolata Duméril and Bibron in Duméril and Duméril, 1851, Catal. Method., 10. Holotype: MNHN 8310; given as MNHN 9424 by Iverson (1992:156). Type-locality: "Province du Petén (Amér. centr.)" [El Petén, Guatemala]. Restricted to "La Libertad," El Petén, Guatemala, by Smith and Taylor (1950:30), and to "Flores," El Petén, Guatemala, by Dunn and Stuart (1951:60).
Geoemyda areolata-Wettstein, 1934, Sitz. Akad. Wissen. Wien. 143:18.
Geoemyda areolata-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[50].

DISTRIBUTION: Lowlands of the Atlantic versant from central Veracruz (Mexico) to the Río Polochic Valley of Guatemala. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 200 m. Petén Area (map).


Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima (Gray, 1855)
Emys pulcherrimus Gray, 1855, Cat. Shield Rept. Collect. Brit. Mus. I. Testudinata, 79 pp.[25]. Holotype: BMNH 1947.3.5.52. Type-locality: "Mexico." Restricted to "Presidio de Mazatlan," Sinaloa, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor (1950:343), and to "vicinity of San Marcos, Guerrero, Mexico" by Ernst (1979:125).
Emys incisa Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) 10:121. Holotype: MNHN 6217. Type-locality: La Unión Salvador.
Geoemyda pulcherrima incisa-Wettstein, 1934, Sitz. Akad. Wissen. Wien 143:18.
Geoemyda pulcherrima incisa-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[50].

DISTRIBUTION: Lower portion of the Pacific versant and coastal plain from southern Sonora (Mexico) southeastwart through Guatemala to northwestern Costa Rica. In Guatemala, it also inhabits the Motagua River Valley. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 800 m. Escuintlan, Fuegan, Jalapan, and Zacapan Areas (map).


Genus Trachemys Agassiz, 1857


Trachemys Agassiz, 1857, Contrib. Nat. Hist. U.S. Am., vol1, 452 pp.[434]. Type-species: Testudo scabra Linnaeus (1758), by original designation. However, because this name is a nomen dubium, Smith and Smith (1979:434) proposed that Emys troosti Holbrook (1836:55) should be designated as the type-species by the ICZN.

CONTENT: About half a dozen species.

Trachemys scripta (Schoepff, 1792)
Testudo scripta Schoepff, 1792, Hist. Testud. Icon. Illus., 160 pp.[16]. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: None designated in original description; designated as "Charleston, South Carolina," USA, by Schmidt (1953:102).
Emys ornata Gray, 1831, Synop. Rept. [30. Syntypes (2): BM 1946.1.22.40­41. Type locality: Mazatlán, Mexico.
Emys grayi Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5)10:121. Holotype: MNHN 9220. Type-locality: "sur la côte occidentale du Guatemala, à l'embouchure du Nagualate."
Emys umbra Bocourt, 1876, J. Zool. 5:26. [Substitute name for Emys grayi Bocourt, 1868, erroneously believed by Bocourt to be preoccupied by Emys grayi Günther, 1869.]
Emys salvinii Günther, 1885, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[4, pls. 2­3]. Holotype: BM 1946.1.22.76. Type-locality: Guatemala.
Pseudemys ornata ornata-Mertens, Müller, and Rust, 1934, Bl. Aqu. Terr. K. Magdeburg and Stuttgart 45:60.
Emys venusta-Duméril and Bocourt, 1870, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Centr., p. 13.
Pseudemys scripta ornata-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:1­253[31]. [In part.]
Pseudemys ornata ornata-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[51].
Pseudemys ornata grayi-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[51].

DISTRIBUTION: Eastern North America from Pennsylvania westward through New Mexico and Arizona to Baja California and the west coast of Mexico; southward through Mexico and Central Aerica to northern Colombia and Venezuela. In Guatemala, it occurs at elevations of 0­200 m. Petén and Zacapan Areas (map).


FAMILY KINOSTERNIDAE

Genus Kinosternon Spix, 1825


Kinosternon Spix, 1825, Anim. Nova. Testud. Ranarum., 17, pl. 12. Type-species: Kinosternon longicaudum Spix, 1825 [= Testudo scorpioides Linnaeus, 1766], by subsequent designation of Fitzinger (1843:29).

CONTENT: About 20 species.

Kinosternon acutum (Gray, 1831)
Kinosternon scorpioides var. acuta Gray, 1831, Synop. Rept., 34, pl. 7, fig. 1. Holotype: BM 1947.3.4.58. Type-locality: None given; data with holotype was stated to be "Central America" according to Gray (1844:33); Stejneger (1941:XX) suggested Honduras, which Stuart (1963:48) thought was improbable. Schmidt (1941:488) thought the type was from "British Honduras" [= Belize], and Smith and Taylor (1950:347) restricted the type-locality to "Cosamaloapam, Veracruz," Mexico..
Kinosternon acutum-Stejneger, 1941, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 90:491.

DISTRIBUTION: Lowlands of the Atlantic versant from central Veracruz (Mexico) to northern Guatemala and Belize, exclusive of the northern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula at elevations of 0­200 m. Petén Area (map).


Kinosternon leucostomum Duméril and Bibron, 1851
Cinosternon leucostomum Duméril and Bibron in Duméril and Duméril, 1851, Catal. Method., 17. Holotype: Originally 3 specimens, MNHN 2114, 9087 [= 8311), and 9088; MNHN 8311 designated lectotype by fiat of restriction of type-locality. Type-locality: "N. Orleans: Mexique; Rio Sumasinta [sic, =Usumacinta] (Amer. centr.)"; Magdalena Valley, Colombia; and "also the unknown souce of a specimen living in the zoological garden at the time and from which drawings were made and filed in the Museum Library as No. 28", according to Stuart, 1963. Type-locality restricted to the "Rio Usumacinta, El Petén, Guatemala," by Schmidt (1941:488); restricted to "Cosamaloapam, Veracruz," Mexico by Smith and Taylor (1950:347).
Swanka maculata Gray, 1869, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1869:182. Syntypes (originally 8, only 5 now extant, according to Stuart, 1963:49): BM 1946.1.22.25, 1946.1.22.71-74. Type locality: Mexico, Verapaz, North America, "Papalco Apoia" [= Cosamaloapam, Mexico, according to Stuart, 1963:49]. Type-locality restricted to Cosamaloapam, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor (1950:347).
Cinosternon cobanum Günther, 1885, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[18, pl. 18, fig B]. Syntypes (2): 1946.1.22.18-19. Type-locality: Coban and Cahabon, Guatemala.
Cinosternon effeldtii Günther, 1885, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[16].
Kinosternon leucostomum-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:1­253[25].
Kinosternon leucostomum-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[48].

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant from southern Veracruz (Mexico) to Panama, exlusive of the northeastern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula; in eastern Panama this species crosses over to the Pacific drainages and in South America it occurs in northern and western Colombia and western Ecuador. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 200 m. Petén Area (map).


Kinosternon scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766)
Testudo scorpioides Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 532 pp,[352]. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: "Surinami" [= Suriname].
Cinosternon cruentatum Duméril and Bibron in Duméril and Duméril, 1851, Cat. Method., p.16. Holotype: MNHNP 1759. Type-locality: North America.
Kinosternon abaxillare Baur in Stejneger, 1925, J. Washington Acad. Sci. 15:462. Holotype: USNM 7518. Type-locality: "Tuxtla [Gutiérrez], Chiapas, Mexico."
Kinosternon cruentatum cruentatum-Wettstein, 1934, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 143:14. [By fiat.]
Kinosternon cruentatum cruentatum-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[48].

DISTRIBUTION:
In Atlantic drainages of Middle America from Tamaulpas (Mexico) to Nicaragua, and in Pacific drainages from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to Panama. This species is also widespread in South America, occurring east of the Andes from Colombia to Brazil and Argentina. In Guatemala, this species occurs at elevation from near sea-level to about 1000 m. Petén, Grijalvan, Jalapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


FAMILY STAUROTYPIDAE

Genus Claudius Cope, 1865


Cladius Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 17:187. Type-species: Claudius angustatus Cope (1865), by monotypy.

CONTENT: A single species


Claudius angustatus Cope, 1865
Claudius angustatus Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 17:187, pl. 9. Holotype: USNM 6518; originaly thought to be 2 syntypes, but parts of the same specimen were catalogued as USNM 6518 and 6525. Type-locality: "Tabasco, Mexico".

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant from Veracruz (Mexico) into noorthern Guatemala and Belize, exclusive of the northern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. Its elevational distribution is from about sea-level to 300 m. Petén Area (map).


Genus Staurotypus Wagler, 1830


Staurotypus Wagler, 1830, Natur. Syst. Amphib., 137, pl. 5, figs. 14-15. Type-species: Terrapene triporcata Wiegmann (1928), by monotypy.
Staurotypus (Stauremys) Gray, 1864, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864:127.
Stauremys Gray, 1869, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1869:180. Type-species: Staurotypus (Stauremys) salvinii Gray, 1864.

CONTENT: Two species.

Staurotypus salvinii Gray, 1864
Staurotypus (Stauremys) salvinii Gray, 1864, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864:127. Holotype: BM 1946.1.22.79. Type-locality: "Huamanchal" [= Huamuchil], Guatemala.
Staurotypus salvini-Günther, 1885, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[11] [in part].
Staurotypus salvini-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[49].

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific coastal plain from the Isthmus of Tehunatepec (Mexico) southeastward through Guatemala into El Salvador. Its elevational distribution is from about sea level to 200 m. Escuintlan Area (map).


Staurotypus triporcatus (Wiegmann, 1828)
Terrapene triporcata Wiegmann, 1828, Isis von Oken 21:364. Holotype: ZMB 127. Type locality: "Río Alvarado," Veracruz, Mexico.
Staurotypus triporcatus- Wagler, 1830, Natur. Syst. Amphib., 137; pl. 5, figs. 14-15.
Staurotypus salvinii [nec Gray]-Duméril and Bocourt, 1870, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Centr., 22, pl. 5, figs. 3-3a.
Claudius pictus Cope, 1872, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 24:26 [name proposed for the Staurotypus salvinii of Duméril and Bocourt, 1870]. Holotype: MNHN 1589. Type locality: a tributary of the Río Polochic, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Staurotypus triporcatus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:1­150[50].

DISTRIBUTION: Veracruz (Mexico) through northern Guatemala to Belize and northwestern Honduras, exclusive of the orthern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula at elevations from near sea-level to 200 m. Petén Area (map).


ORDER CROCODYLIA-CROCODILIANS


Genus Caiman Spix, 1825
Caiman Spix, 1825, Animal. Nova Lacert. Brasil., p. 3. Type-species: Caiman fissipes Spix, 1825 [= Crocodilus latirostris Daudin]..

CONTENT:


Caiman crocodilus
Perosuchus fuscus Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20:203. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: Río Magdelena, Colombia.
Alligator (Jacare) Chiaparius Bocourt, 1876, Ann. Sci. Nat. (6)3:1. Holotype: MNHN. Type locality: Tonalá, Chiapas, Mexico.
Alligator Chiapasius Bocourt, J. Zool. 5:400. Holotype: MNHN. Type-locality: Tonalá, Chiapas, Mexico.
Caiman crocodilus fuscus-Mertens, 1943, Senckenbergiana 26:275.

DISTRIBUTION: In Guatemala, this species occurs from near sea-level to about 300 m. Escuintlan Area (map).


Genus Crocodylus Laurenti, 1768
Crocodylus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synop. Rept., p. 53. Type-species: Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti (1768).

CONTENT:

Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, 1807
Crocodilus acutus Cuvier, 1807, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 10: 55. Holotype: Originally in MNHN, now lost. Type-locality: Santo Domingo [= Hispaniola].
Crocodilus pacificus Duméril and Bocourt, 1870, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 31. Holotype: MNHHN 7816. Type-locality: Nagualate embayment, western Guatemala.
Crocodilus americanus acutus-Günther, 1885, Biol. Cent. Am., p. 19.
Crocodylus acutus acutus-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199: 210.

DISTRIBUTION: In Mexico from Tamaulipas on the Atlantic and Sinaloa on the Pacific southward on both coasts into South America. This species also occurs on many of the Caribbean Islands and in southern Florida. It has been practically eradicated from the Pacific lowlands of Guatemala. This species was still relatively common in the waters of the lower Motagua during the decade of the 1980s. I have seen photographs of a number of individulas exceeding 3 m in length that were hunted in the Motagua River during 1970s and early 1980s. I saw three juveniles in 1993. At one time, this species may have occured well up this river. In his account of a dugout ride from Gualan to Los Amates, Brigham (1887:213) notes that "alligators" were common; he almost certainly was referring to C. acutus. However, this author goes on to say that, even in his day, crocodilians were becoming rare in some parts of Guatemala (Brigham, 1887:372). Petén, Zacapan, Grijalvan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Crocodylus moreleti Duméril and Bocourt, 1851
Crocodilus moreletii Duméril and Bocourt, 1851, Catal. Method., p. 28. Holotype: MNHN 7520. Type-locality: Lake Petén, Guatemala.
Crocodylus moreletii-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199: 211.

DISTRIBUTION: Lowlands from Tamaulipas, Mexico, southward to Belize and northern Guatemala. Petén Area (map).


ORDER SQUAMATA-LIZARDS

FAMILY ANGUIDAE

Genus Abronia Gray, 1838
Abronia Gray, 1838, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1: 389. Type-species: Gerrhonotus deppii Wiegmann, designated by Tihen, 1949, Am. Midl. Nat. 41: 587.

CONTENT: About 30 species.

Abronia anzuetoi
Campbell and Frost, 1994
Abronia vasconcelosii-Hidalgo, 1983: 10. [In part, Hidalgo's allocated specimens included A. anzuetoi, A. vasconcelosi (= A. aurita), and A. matudai.]
Abronia vasconcelosii-Good, 1988: 95. [In part, Good's allocated specimens included one specimen of A. aurita (the holotype of A. vasconcelosii) and one specimen of A. anzuetoi.]
Abronia vasconcelosii-Campbell and Vannini, 1989: 9 [In part, allocated specimens included A. aurita and A. anzuetoi].
Abronia anzuetoi Campbell and Frost, 1993, Bull Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 216:22. Holotype: University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ) 129013, an adult male. Type localty: "in cloud forest at 1219 m (4000 feet) elevation on the south slope of Volcán de Agua, Finca Rosario Vista Hermosa, Department of Escuintla, Guatemala. This site is about 12 km (airline) NNE Escuintla at approximately 14° 25' N, 90° 44' W."

DISTRIBUTION: South-central Guatemala; known only from the southern slopes of the Volcán de Agua, Department of Escuintla, in cloud forest at elevations of 1219­2286 m. These slopes lie within the eastern portion of the Fuegan Area of Campbell and Vannini (1989). Specimens have been collected in forest containing oak and cypress trees. We have received reports from inhabitants of the adjacent Volcán de Pacaya of a large, slow-moving, green arboreal lizard that may be of this species. Fuegan Area (map).

Abronia aurita (Cope, 1869)
Gerrhonotus auritus Cope, 1869 [dated 1868]: 306. Holotype: USNM 6769, according to Cochran, 1961: 114. Type-locality: "vast forests of Vera Paz, in the neighborhood of the ancient cities of Peten and Coban." Type-locality stated as "Vera Paz, Guatemala" by Cochran, 1961; USNM catalogue lists "Guatemala, Vera Paz," fide R. W. McDiarmid (personal commun.).
Gerrhonotus vasconcelosii Bocourt, 1871: 107. Holotype: MNHN 2017, according to Guibé (1954) and Brygoo (1987). Type-locality: "Arguetta (Guatémala), à plus de 2,000 mètres d'altitude."
Gerrhonotus (Abronia) vasconcelosii-Bocourt, 1878 [1870--1909]: 334, pl. 21A, figs. 8--8A; 1879 [1870--1909], pl. 21, fig. 3.
Gerrhonotus auritus-Hartweg and Tihen, 1946: 2.
Abronia aurita-Tihen, 1949a: 591; Tihen, 1954: 21.
Abronia vasconcelosii-Tihen, 1949a: 591; Tihen, 1954: 24.
Abronia aurita-Hidalgo, 1983: 10 [In part, Hidalgo's allocated specimens included A. aurita, A. fimbriata, and A. gaiophantasma.]
Abronia vasconcelosii-Hidalgo, 1983: 10. [In part, Hidalgo's allocated specimens included A. vasconcelosii (= A. aurita), A. anzuetoi, and A. matudai.]
Abronia vasconcelosii-Good, 1988: 95. [In part, Good's allocated specimens included one specimen of

DISTRIBUTION: Within this century this species was probably widespread in the Guatemalan highlands, including portions of the Huehuetenangan, Quecchian, and Jalapan areas, and probably portions of the Sierran area (sensu Campbell and Vannini, 1989). The only known specimen from the northeastern Guatemalan highlands (the holotype) lacks precise locality data. All definite locality records for this species are from pine-oak forest at elevations of 2000--2660 m, although the region surrounding Cobán (the indefinite Type-locality) is below 1500 m. Most of the original pine-oak forests have been destroyed and this species is restricted to a few enclaves either too steep for agriculture or in protected watersheds. The distributional pattern exhibited by A. aurita is shared by other terrestrial vertebrate species that are widespread in the pine-oak forests of the Guatemalan highlands, including Hypopachus barberi, Rana maculata, Corytophanes percarinatus, Norops crassulus, Sibon fischeri, and Thamnophis fulvus. Huehuetenangan, Quecchian, and Jalapan Areas (map).

Abronia campbelli Brodie and Savage, 1993
Abronia campbelli Brodie and Savage, 1993, Herpetologica 49(4): 420­427[421]. Holotype: UTA R-32000. Type-locality: Cerro Tablón de las Minas, near La Pastoría, Jalapa, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Jalapa, Guatemala. Jalapan Area (map).

Abronia fimbriata (Cope, 1885)
Gerrhonotus (Abronia) auritus-Bocourt, 1878 [1870--1909]: 337, pl. 21A, figs. 7--7a; 1879 [1870--1909], pl. 21, fig. 2.
Barissia fimbriata Cope, 1885 [dated 1884]: 171. [Based on Bocourt's Gerrhonotus auritus.] Syntypes: MNHN 1189, 1189A, and 1189B, according to Brygoo (1987: 6), from "les forèts de pins de la haute Vera Paz (Guatemala oriental)" (Bocourt, 1878 [1870--1909]), here restricted to vicinity of Cáquipec, Department of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. MNHN 1189 here designated lectotype.
Gerrhonotus fimbriatus-Günther, 1885, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[37].
Abronia fimbriata-Tihen, 1949a: 591; Tihen, 1954: 22.
Abronia aurita-Stuart, 1963: 81. [In part, Stuart's examined specimens included only A. aurita, although he considered A. fimbriata to be a synonym.]
Abronia aurita-Good, 1988: 92. [In part, Good's allocated specimens included only A. gaiophantasma, then unrecognized as distinct, although he retained the name A. fimbriata in synonymy.]
Abronia aurita-Hidalgo, 1983: 10. [In part, Hidalgo's specimens included A. fimbriata, A. aurita, and A. gaiophantasma.]
Abronia fimbriata-Campbell and Vannini, 1989: 9.

DISTRIBUTION: Northeastern Guatemalan highlands; known with certainty from the cloud forests of the western portion of the Sierra de las Minas, Department of Baja Verapaz, at elevations of 1500 to 2100 m, and from the Sierra de Xucaneb (Montaña Ulpán), Department of Alta Verapaz, at elevations of 1400 m to 2000 m. These localities are in the Quecchian Area and the Sierra de las Minas Sierran Subarea, as defined by Campbell and Vannini (1989). Bocourt (1878 [1870--1909]) reported specimens from "les forèts de pins de la haute Vera Paz." Quecchian an Minan Areas (map).


Abronia frosti Campbell, Sasa, Acevedo, and Mendelson, 1998
Abronia frosti Campbell, Sasa, Acevedo, and Mendelson, 1998, Herpetologica 54(2): 221­234[222]. Holotype: UTA R-41131. Type-locality: Along road to Patalcal, 5.9 km (by road) NW intersection of Guatemala road 9N (near San Mateo Ixtatán), 2835 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Abronia gaiophantasma
Campbell and Frost, 1993
"alligator lizard"-Mitchell, 1986: 78[fig. by G. I. Bernard].
Abronia aurita-Campbell, 1982: 361.
Abronia aurita-Hidalgo, 1983: 10. [In part, the specimens allocated by Hidalgo to this binominal included A. gaiophantasma, A. aurita, and A. fimbriata.]
Abronia aurita-Good, 1988: 92.
Abronia aurita-Campbell and Vannini, 1989: 9.
Abronia gaiophantasma Campbell and Frost, 1994, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 216:19. Holotype: The University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) R-19646 (field no. JAC 12430), an adult male. Type-locality: obtained "in cloud forest at 1600 m elevation on the west slope of Cerro Verde in the vicinity of La Unión Barrios, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. This site is located at approximately 15°11' N, 90° 12' W."

DISTRIBUTION: Northeastern highlands of Guatemala; known only from the cloud forest and pine-oak forest of the western portion of the Sierra de las Minas in the Department of Baja Verapaz. Minan Area (map).

Abronia matudai (Hartweg and Tihen, 1946)
Gerrhonotus matudai Hartweg and Tihen, 1946: 3. Holotype: UMMZ 88831. Type-locality: Volcán Tacaná, Chiapas, Mexico, 2000 m.
Abronia matudai-Tihen, 1949a: 591; Good, 1988.
Abronia vasconcelosii-Hidalgo, 1983: 10. [In part.]

DISTRIBUTION: Southwestern Guatemala and southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. Known in Guatemala only from two localities on the Pacific versant near San Marcos, Department of San Marcos, at elevations of 2300­2630 m, which is near the boundary of the pine-oak and pine cypress zones (as delimited by Stuart, 1951).In Mexico, this species is known only from Volcán Tacaná, Chiapas. The geographical distribution of this species is not known to overlap that of A. smithi to the west or A. anzuetoi to the east. Fuegan and Chimaltenangan Areas (map).

Abronia meledona Campbell and Brodie, 1999
Abronia meledona Campbell and Brodie, 1999, Herpetologica 55:161­174[163]. Holotype: UTA R-31041. Type-locality: "near the Torre de Guatel, near the aldea of Soledad Grande, Jalapa, Guatemala, 2660 m elevation."

DISTRIBUTION: The southeastern highlands of Guatemala; known only from the vicinity of the type-locality on the highlands lying between the towns of Mataquescuintla and Jalapa. The elevational range of the species is 2200­2660 m. Jalapan Area (map).

Abronia vasconcelosi (Bocourt, 1872).
Abronia vasconcelosi Bocourt, 1872, Nouv. Arch. Mus. 7: 107. Holotype: MNHN 2017. Type locality: Argueta, Guatemala, above 2000 meters.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemalan highlands. Chimaltenangan Area (map).

Genus Mesaspis Cope, 1878
Mesaspis Cope, 1878, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 17: 96. Type-species: Gerrhonotus moreletii Bocourt.

CONTENT: Six species.


Mesaspis moreletii
(Bocourt, 1872)

Gerrhonotus moreletii Bocourt, 1872, Nouv. Arch. Mus. 7: 102. Types: MNHN 1188, 1267­68 [6 syntypes]. Type-locality: Peten and pine forests of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala 1440 m.

DISTRIBUTION:
Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, through Guatemala to northern Nicaragua. Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Quecchian, Chuacús, Minan, Merendón, Cuilcan, Jalapan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Genus Diploglossus Wiegmann, 1834
Diploglossus Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetologica Mexicana, p. 36. Type-species: Tilqua fasciatus Gray.

CONTENT: About 30 species.


Diploglossus atitlanensis (Smith and Taylor, 1950)
Celestus atitlanensis Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:195. Holotype: MNHN 5206. Type-locality: Atitlán, Guatemala [probably San Lucas Atitlán].

DISTRIBUTION: From south-central Guatemala to western El Salvador. Fuegan Area (map).


Diploglossus bivittatus Boulenger, 1895
Diploglossus bivittatus Boulenger, 1895 [dated 1894], Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1894: 732 (pl. 48, fig. 5). Holotype: BMNH 1946.8.29.37. Type-locality: "Hacienda Rosa de Jericho [= Hacienda Sta. Rosa de Jericó, Matagalpa], Nicaragua, 3250 feet."

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala to Nicaragua. Jalapan Area (map).


Diploglossus rozellae (Smith, 1942)
Celestus rozellae Smith, 1942, Poc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 92: 372. Holotype: USNM 113526. Type locality: Vicinity of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico and Guatemala. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, abd Minan Areas (map).


FAMILY GEKKONIDAE

Genus Aristelliger Cope, 1862
Aristelliger Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861:496. Type-species: Aristelliger lar Cope (1862).
Idiodactylus Bocourt, 1870, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 41. Type-species: Idiodactylus georgeensis Bocourt (1870).
Aristelligella Noble and Klinger, 1932, Am. Mus. Novitat. 549:4. Type-species: Aristelligella barbouri Nobel and Klinger (1932).

CONTENT: Four species.


Aristelliger georgeensis
(Bocourt, 1870)
Idiodactylus georgeensis Bocourt, 1870, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 4, pl. 10, figs. 1­1d. Holotype: MNHN. Type-locality: St. George Island, off Belize, British Honduras.
Aristelliger irregularis Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22:387. Holotype: USNM 13903. Type-locality: Cozumel Island, Yucatán, Mexico.
Aristelliger georgeensis-Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:51.

DISTRIBUTION: Quintana Roo and Cozumel Island (Mexico) to Belize and possibly Guatemala. Known only from near sea-level. Possibly this species occurs near the coast of eastern Guatemala or on a small offshore island. Possibly Petén Area (map).


Genus Coleonyx Gray, 1845
Coleonyx Gray, 1845, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 16: 162. Type-species: Coleonyx elegans Gray.

CONTENT:


Coleonyx elegans Gray, 1845
Coleonyx elegans Gray, 1845, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 16: 163. Holotype: BMNH 1946.8.27.7. Type-locality: British Honduras [Belize].
Gymnodactylus scapularis A. Duméril, 1851, Catal. Method., p. 45. Holotype: Originally in MNHN, now apparently lost. Type-locality: Peten Province, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: On the Atlantic from about central Veracruz to northern Honduras, and on the Pacific from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region to western Guatemala. Petén, Mayan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Coleonyx mitratus Peters, 1863
Brachydactylus mitratus Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1863: 42. Holotype: ZMB 4598. Type-locality: Costa Rica.
Coleonyx mitratus-Schmidt, 1928, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 12: 194.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala to Panama. Zacapan, Jalapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Gonatodes Fitzinger, 1843
Gonatodes Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 91. Type-species: Gymnodactylus albogularis Duméril and Bibron.

CONTENT: About 15 species.


Gonatodes albogularis (Duméril and Bibron, 1836)
Gymnodactylus albogularis Duméril and Bibron, 1836, Erp. Gén. 3: 415. Types: MNHN. Type locality: Martinique.

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in Central America, nothern half of South America, and the Antilles. Petén and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Hemidactylus Oken, 1817
Hemidactylus Oken, 1817, Isis von Oken, p. 1183. Type-species: Gecko tuberculosus Daudin.

CONTENT: About 70 species.


Hemidactylus frenatus Schlegel, 1836
Hemidactylus frenatus Schlegel in Duméril and Bibron, 1836, Erp. Gén. 3: 366. Syntypes: MNHN 5135 [2 specimens]. Type-locality: Java and Timor. Restriced to Java by Loveridge (1947).

DISTRIBUTION: Originally over much of the Old World tropics, but now introduced in many places of the New World. Escuintlan Area (map).


Genus Phyllodactylus Gray, 1828
Phyllodactylus Gray, 1828, Spicil. Zool, p. 3. Type-species: Phyllodactylus pulcher Gray.

CONTENT: About 60 species.


Phyllodactylus insularis Dixon, 1960
Phyllodactylus insularis Dixon, 1960, Herpetologica 16: 1­11[9]. Holotype: FMNH 34633. Type-locality: "Half Moon Cay, British Honduras."

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type-locality but probably on some of the other numberous small islands off Belize. Petén Area (map).


Phyllodactylus tuberculosus Wiegmann, 1834
Phyllodactylus tuberculosus Wiegmann, 1834, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 17: 241 (pl. 18, figs 2­2a). Syntypes: ZMB 412 [2 specimens]. Type-locality: "Californien."

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico to Costa Rica. Petén, Zacapan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).

 

Genus Sphaerodactylus Wagller, 1830

Sphaerodactylus Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 143. Type-species: Lacerta sputator Sparrman.

CONTENT: About 60 species.


Sphaerodactylus glaucus Cope, 1865
Sphaerodactylus glaucus Cope, 1865, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 17(4): 185­198[192]. Holotype: USNM 6572. Type-locality: Mexico, Yucatan; near Mérida.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico through Guatemala to the western portion of Honduras. Petén and Jalapan Areas (map).


Sphaerodactylus millepunctatus Hallowell, 1861
Sphaerodactylus millepunctatus Hallowell, 1861 [dated 1860], Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 480­509[480]. Syntypes: USNM 6057a­b, now lost. Type-locality: Restricted to Nicaragua by Harris and Kluge (1984: 17).

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico to Costa Rica. Petén and Zacapan Areas (map).

Genus Thecadactylus Gray, 1825
Thecadactylus Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos. 10: 198. Type-species: Gekko rapicauda Houttuyn.

CONTENT: One species.


Thecadactylus rapicauda (Houttuyn, 1782)
Gekko rapicauda Houttuyn, 1782, Verh. Genoot. Vlissing. 9: 322 (pl. 3, fig. 1). Holotype: Not traced. Type-locality: West Indies.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico through Central America into South America and the Lesser Antilles. Petén, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).


FAMILY HELODERMATIDAE

Genus Heloderma Wiegmann, 1829
Heloderma Wiegmann, 1829, Isis von Oken 22: 624. [Substitute name for Trachyderma Wiegmann.] Type-species: Trachyderma horridum Wiegmann, 1829.

CONTENT: Two species.


Heloderma horridum
(Wiegmann, 1829)

Trachyderma horidum Wiegmann, 1829, Isis von Oken 22: 421. Holotype: ZMB. Type locality: "Vivit in ferventibus terrae Mexicanae regionibus." Restricted to Huajintlan, Guerrero, by Smith and Taylor (1950: 193).

DISTRIBUTION: Along the west coast of Mexico from Sonora to Chiapas; in interior valleys in Chiapas and Guatemala. Zacapan, Jalapan, and Grijalvan Areas (map).


FAMILIY CORYTOPHANIDAE

Genus Basiliscus Laurenti, 1768


Basiliscus Laurenti, 1768, Synop. Rept., 50. Type species: Basiliscus americanus Laurenti [= Lacerta basiliscus Linnaeus].

CONTENT: Four species.

Basiliscus vittatus Wiegmann, 1828
Basiliscus vittatus Wiegmann, 1828, Isis 21:373. Holotype: ZMB 549. Type-locality: Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: On Atlantic slopes and lowlands from Tamaulipas (Mexico) and on Pacific slopes and lowlands from Jalisco (Mexico) southward to Panama. Petén, Mayan, Cuchumatan, Quecchian, Chuacús, Minan, Merendón, Mican, Grijalvan, Cuilcan, Salaman, Zacapan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Corytophanes Boie, 1827
Corytophanes Boie in Schlegel, 1827, Isis von Oken 20: 290. Type-species: Agama cristata Merrem.

CONTENT: Three species.


Corytophanes cristatus (Merrem, 1821)
Agama cristatus Merrem, 1821, Tent. Syst. Amph., p. 50. Type: Unknown, possible based on Seba (I: Tab. 94, fig. 4), from Ceylon, in error. Type-locality: Restricted to Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor, 1950).

DISTRIBUTION: Central Veracruz (Mexico) to Costa Rica. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, and Mican Areas (map).


Corytophanes hernandesii (Wiegmann, 1831)
Corytophanes hernandesii Wiegmann in Gray in Griffith, 1831, Cuvier's Animal Kingdom 9: 45. Holotype: ZMB 545. Type-locality: Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico and Guatemala. Petén Area (map).


Corytophanes percarinatus Duméril, 1856
Corytophanes percarinatus Duméril, 1856, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 8: 518 (pl. 20, figs. 3­3a). Holotype: MNHN 2117. Type-locality: "Ascuintla [Escuintla] in Central Ameica, 30 leagues from Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico through Guatemala to El Salvador. Quecchian, Minan, Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, and Fuegan Areas (Map).


Genus Laemanctus Wiegmann, 1834
Laemanctus Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetol. Mex., pp. 16 and 45 (pl. 4). Type-species: Laemanctus longipes Wiegmann.

CONTENT: Two species


Laemanctus longipes Wiegmann, 1834
Laemanctus longipes Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetol. Mex., 46. Holotype: ZMB. Type-locality: Jalapa, Veracruz.

DISTRIBUTION: Central Veracruz (Mexico) southward through Guatemala and Honduras possible to Nicaragua. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Minan, and Merendón Areas (map).


Laemanctus serratus Cope, 1864
Laemanctus serratus Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1864: 176. Holotype: Mus. Leyden. Type-locality: "Orizaba Valley, Mexico."

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico and possibly northern Guatemala. Possibly Petén Area (map).


FAMILY IGUANIDAE


Genus
Ctenosaura Wiegmann, 1828
Ctenosaura Wiegmann, 1828, Isis von Oken 1828: 371. Type-species: Ctenosaura cycluroides Wiegmann [= Lacerta acanthura Shaw].

CONTENT: About 10 species


Ctenosaura palearis
Stejneger, 1899

Ctenosaura palearis Stejneger, 1899, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 21: 381. Holotype: USNM 22703. Type-locality: Gualan,, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Motagua Valley of Guatemala. Zacapan Area (map).


Ctenosaura similis (Gray, 1831)
Iguana (Ctenosaura) similis Gray in Griffith, 1831, Cuvier's Animal Kingdom 9:38. Holotype: Not given and present location unknown. Type-locality: Restricted to Tela, Honduras, by Bailey (1928).

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico to Panama. Petén, Quecchian, Zacapan, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).

Genus Iguana Laurenti, 1768
Iguana Laurenti, 1768, Synop. Rept., p. 47. Type-species: Iguana tuberculata Laurenti [= Lacerta iguana Linnaeus].

CONTENT: Two species.


Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758)
Lacerta iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 206. Holotype: Not given. Type-locality: "In Indiis.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico through Central America into South America to southern Brazil and Paraguay; some Caribbean Islands. Petén, Quecchian, Mican, Zacapan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


FAMILY PHRYNOSOMATIDAE

Genus Phrynosoma Wiegmann, 1828
Phrynosoma Wiegmann, 1828, Isis von Oken 1828: 367. Type-species: Lacerta orbicularis Linnaeus.

CONTENT: Fourteen species.


Phrynosoma asio Cope, 1864
Phrynosoma asio Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 178. Holotype: USNM. TYpe-locality: Restricted to Colima, Colima, by Smith and Taylor (1950: 102).

DISTRIBUTION: Colima (Mexico) to western Guatemala. Grijalvan Area (map).


Genus Sceloporus Wiegmann, 1828
Sceloporus Wiegmann, 1828, Isis 21:369. Type species: Sceloporus torquatus Wiegmann.

CONTENT: Probably about 100 species.


Sceloporus acanthinus Bocourt, 1873
Sceloporus acanthhinus [sic] Bocourt, 1873, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5)17: 24. Syntypes: MNHN 3602 [2 specimens]. Type-locality: San Agustin, on the western [southern] slope of Volcan Atitlan, Guatemala, 610 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant from Chiapas (Mexico) through Guatemala to El Salvador. Fuegan, Escuintlan, Jalapan, and Chuacús Areas (map).


Sceloporus carinatus Smith, 1936
Sceloporus carinatus Smith, 1936, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 49: 89 (pl. 2, figs. 2­3). Holotype: FMNH 32008. Type-locality: Near Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala. Salaman and Grijalvan Areas (map).


Sceloporus chrysostictus Cope, 1866
Sceloporus chrysostictus Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18: 125. Syntypes (2): USNM 24865-66. Type-locality: Yucatan, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: The northern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula southward to Campeche (Mexico), northern Petén (Guatemala), and northern Belize. Petén Area (map).


Sceloporus internasalis Smith and Bumzahem, 1955
Sceloporus malachiticus internasalis Smith and Bumzahem, 1955, Herpetologica 11: 118­120[118]. Holotype: UIMNH 35617. Type-locality: "La Gloria, Oacaca," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico and westrn Guatemala. Cuilcan and Fuegan Areas (map).


Sceloporus lundelli Smith, 1939
Sceloporus lundelli Smith, 1939, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 26: 66 (pl. 4). Holotype: UMMZ 80674. Type-locality: Cahune Ridge (20 miles SE Benque Viejo), British Honduras.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map),


Sceloporus melanorhinus Bocourt, 1876
Sceloporus melanorhinus Bocourt, 1876, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Ser. 3(12): 2. Syntypes: MNHN [4 specimens]. Type-locality: Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Restricted to "Tehuantepec (City) by Smith and Taylor (1950: 113).

DISTRIBUTION: Western and southern Mexico to western Guatemala. Grijalvan Area (map).


Sceloporus prezygus Smith, 1942
Sceloporus prezygus Smith, 1942, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 92: 354. Holotype: USNM 46861. Type-locality: Conjab, Chiapas (between San Bartolome and Comitan), Mexico, 5300 feet.

DISTRIBUTION: Chiapas (Mexico) into Guatemala. Cuilcan Area (map).


Sceloporus schmidti Jones, 1927
Sceloporus schmidti Jones, 1927, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 186: 4. Holotype: Lost, according to Smith (1939: 42). Type-locality: Mountain Camp west of San Pedro, Honduras, 4500 ft.

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Honduras and eastern Guatemala. Merendón Area (map).


Sceloporus serrifer Cope, 1866
Sceloporus serrifer Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18: 124. Holotype: USNM 24868. Type-locality: Yucatan, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Tamaulipas (Mexico) and northern Guatemala. Petén, Quecchian, Salaman, Grijalvan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Sceloprous siniferus Cope, 1869
Sceloporus siniferus Cope, 1869, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 11: 159. Syntypes: USNM 30453­56 and 30458­71, UIMNH 40730 [19 specimens]. Type-locality: Pacific side of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Guerrero (Mexico) to Guatemala. Fuegan and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Sceloporus smaragdinus Bocourt, 1873
Sceloporus smaragdinus Bocourt, 1873, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5)17: 1. Syntypes: MNHN 3148, 3150, and 3177 [12 specimens], and USNM 11000. Type-locality: Soloa, Totonicapan, and Quezaltenango, Guatemala, 2000 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Guatemala. Chuacús, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Sceloporus squamosus Bocourt, 1874
Sceloporus squamosus Bocourt, 1874, Miss. Sci. Mexique, Rept., p. 212 (pl. 18, figs. 7­7c; pl. 19, fig. 3). Syntypes: MNHN 3180­82 [8 specimens]. Type-locality: Guatemala [?City] and Antigua, 1500 meters, and the embayment of the Rio Nagualate.

DISTRIBUTION: Chiapas (Mexico) to Costa Rica. Zacapan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Sceloporus taeniocnemis Cope, 1885
Sceloporus taeniocnemis Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22: 399. Holotype: USNM 24768. Type-locality: Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Oaxaca (Mexico) to Guatemala. Quecchian, Minan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Sceloporus teapensis Günther, 1890
Sceloporus teapensis Günther, 1890, Biol. Cent. Am., p. 75. Syntypes: BMNH 1946.8.9.92­98 [7 specimens]. Type-locality: Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Veracruz (Mexico) to Guatemala. Petén, Quecchian, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Sceloporus variabilis Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetol. Mex.
Sceloporus variabilis Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetol. Mex., p. 51. Syntypes: ZMB 650 and 652; ZMB 650 designated lectotype according to Wermuth in Stuart (1963: 73). Type-locality: Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico to Costa Rica. Quecchian, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, and Fuegan Areas (map).



FAMILY POLYCHROTIDAE Fitzinger, 1843

Genus Anolis Daudin, 1801
Anolis Daudin, 1801, Hist. Nat. Rept. 4: 50. Type-species: Anolis bullaris Daudin [= Anolis carolinensis Voigt].

CONTENT: About 55 species.


Anolis allisoni
Barbour, 1928

Anolis allisoni Barbour, 1928, Proc. New England Zool. Club. 10:58. Holotype: MCZ 26725. Type-locality: "Coxen Hole, Ruatan, Bay Islands of Honduras."

DISTRIBUTION: Cuba, Bay Islands of Honduras, coast of Belize at elevations near sea level (0­30 m). Petén Area (map).

Genus Norops Wagler, 1830
Norops Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 149. Type-species: Anolis auratus Daudin.

CONTENT: About 120 species.

Norops beckeri (Boulenger, 1881)
Anolis beckeri Boulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1881:921. Cotypes: Royal Belg. Mus. Type-locality: Yucatán.
Anolis pentaprion beckeri-Stuart, 1958, Contrib. Lab. Vert. Biol. 75:9.
Norops beckeri-Campbell, 1998, Amph. Rept. N. Guatemala, Yucatán, Belize, 380 pp.[132]

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Chiapas (Mexico) through northern Guatemala to Belize to Honduras at elevations from near sea-level to about 1000 m. Petén, Mayan, Mican, and Merendón Areas (map).

Norops biporcatus (Wiegmann, 1834)
Dactyloa biporcata Wiegmann, 1834, Herp. Mex., p. 47. Holotype: Not traced. Type-locality: Mexico.
Anolis biporcatus-Bocourt, 1873, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 98, pl. 15, figs. 8­8a.
Anolis Copei Bocourt, 1873, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 77, pl. 15, figs. 10­10a. Holotype: XXXXX. Type-locality: Santa Rosa de Pansos, Guatemala.
Anolis obtusirostris Peters, 1874, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1874:407. Holotype: XXXXX. Type-locality: Chriquí, Panama.
Anolis brevipes Boettger, 1893, Kat. Rept. Senckenb. Mus. 1:57. Holotype: XXXXX. Type locality: Cairo Plantation, near Limón, Costa Rica.
Anolis solifer Ruthven, 1916, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 32:4, pl. 2. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: La Concepción, Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia.
Anolis biporcatus biporcatus-Williams, 1966, Breviora 239:9, fig. 4.
Norops biporcatus-XXXXXX.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico to northern Colombia in mesic forests. In Guatemala, it occurs from near sea-level to 770 m. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Jalapan, and Cuchumatan (map).


Norops bourgeaei (Bocourt, 1873)

DISTRIBUTION: Central Veracruz (Mexico) through most of the Yucatán Peninsula, northern Guatemala, and Belize to northern Honduras at elevations from near sea-level to over 1000 m. Petén, Mayan, Mican, Minan, and Merendón Areas (map).


Norops capito (Peters, 1863)
Anolis (Draconura) capito Peters, 1863, Monotsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1863:142. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: Costa Rica; restricted to Palmar, Costa Rica, by Smith and Taylor (1950:316).
Anolis carneus Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1864:171. Holotype: ANSP. Type locality: Lower Verapaz Forest, Guatemala.
Anolis longipes Cope, 1893, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 31:343. Holotype: ANSP. Type-locality: Palmar and Boruca, Costa Rica.
Anolis capito-Taylor, 1956, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38:126, figs. 34­36.

DISTRIBUTION: Caribbean versant from Tabasco (Mexico) to Panama. In Guatemala this species occurs from near sea-level to 1170 m. Petén, Mayan, Mican, Minan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Norops cobanensis (Stuart, 1942)
Anolis cobanensis Stuart, 1942, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 464:6. Holotype: UMMZ. Type-locality: Three km south of Finca Samac, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, 1350 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant of Chiapas (Mexico) to Alta and Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. It occurs at 1000­1830 m. Cuchumatan, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).

Norops crassulus (Cope, 1864)
Anolis crassulus Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16:173. Syntypes (probably 7): ANSP 8023-27, designated as lectosyntypes by Stuart, 1942. Type-locality: Cobán, Guatemala.
Anolis crassulus-Günther, 1885, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[50, pl. 27, fig. F] [in part].
Anolis haguei Stuart, 1942, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 464:3. Holotype: UMMZ 90226. Type-locality: Two km. S Finca Chichén (about 9 km. airline S Cobán), Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; about 1750 meters.
Anolis crassulus crassulus-Stuart, 1948, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 69:1­109[47]. [By fiat.]
Anolis crassulus haguei-Stuart, 1948, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 69:1­109[47].

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in the highlands of Guatemala; occurring also on the Meseta Central of Chiapas and probalby the Sierra Madre of Chiapas (Mexico). The subspecies Norops crassulus crassulus has the most extensive distribution, occurring in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, the Guatemalan Plateau, the southern volcanic highlands, the Sierra de Chuacús, and the southeastern highlands. Norops c. haguei ihabits the highlands of Alta Verapaz and the Sierra de las Minas. The elevational distribution of this species is from about 1400 to 2590 m. Quecchian, Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, and Chimaltenangan Areas (map).


Norops cristifer (Smith, 1968)
Anolis pentaprion cristifer Smith, 1968, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 71(2): 195­200[195]. Holotype: UIMNH 37066. Type-locality: "vicinity of a small lake near Acacoyagua, Chiapas," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Low elevation of the Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala at elevations of 200­750 m. Escuintlan and Fuegan Areas (map).


Norops cupreus (Hallowell, 1860)
Anolis cupreus Hallowell, 1860, Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia 1860:481. Holotype: XXXX. Type locality: None given in original description; stated to be Nicaragua by Cochran (1961:86).
Anolis macrophallus Werner, 1917, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamburg 34:31. Holotype: XXXX. Type locality: San José, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guatemala to Costa Rica; in Guatemala, occurring at 10­1400 m. Escuintlan and Fuegan Areas (map)

.

Norops dollfusianus (Bocourt, 1873)
Anolis dollfusianus Bocourt, 1873, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 84, pl. 16, figs. 19­19a. Holotype: MNHN. Type-locality: San Agustín, on slopes of Volcán Atitlán, Guatemala, 1200 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant from Chiapas (Mexico) to western Guatemala at elevations of 275­1500 m. Escuintlan and Fuegan Areas (map).


Norops laeviventris (Wiegmann, 1834)
Dactyloa (Anolis) laeviventris Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetol. Mex., p. 47. Holotype: XXXX. Type locality: Mexico; restricted to Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor (1950:63).
Dactyloa wiegmanni Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 67. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: Mexico.
Anolis laeviventris-Bocourt, 1873, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 87, pl. 16, figs 18­18a.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant from central Veracruz through Chiapas (Mexico) to central Guatemala. In Guatemala it occurs at 1250­1550 m. Cuchumatan, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).


Norops lemurinus (Cope, 1861)
Anolis (Gastrotropis) lemurinus Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861:213. Holotype: ANSP. Type-locality: Veragua, Panama.

DISTRIBUTION: Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Norops matudai (Smith, 1956)
Anolis matudai Smith, 1956, Herpetologica 12:1. Holotype: UIMNH 34199. Type-locality: "'Región de Soconusco,' Chiapas," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of southestern Chiapas (Mexico) and southwestern Guatemala. Fuegan Area (map).

Norops nannodes (Cope, 1864)
Anolis nannodes Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 173. Syntypes: USNM 12206 [3 specimens]. Type-locality: Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, and Arriba, Costa Rica, and Jalapa, Mexico. Restricted to Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, by Stuart (1948:50).

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant of central Guatemala at about 1500 m. Quecchian Area (map).


Norops petersii (Bocourt, 1873)
Anolis Petersii Bocourt, 1873, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 79. Holotype: MNHN. Type-locality: Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Anolis petersii bivittata Werner, 1896, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 46:351. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: Guatemala; restricted to Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, by Smith and Taylor (1950:317).
Anolis petersi-Stuart, 1955, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 91:21.

DISTRIBUTION: Caribbean versant and mountains from San Luis Potosí (Mexico) and Pacific versant from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec through Guatemala to Honduras. In Guatemala, it occurs at elevations of 1300 to 2130 m. Quecchian, Minan, Cuchumatan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Norops rodriguezii (Bocourt, 1873)
Anolis Rodriguezii Bocourt, 1873, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 62, pl. 13, figs. 1­1a. Holotype: MNHN 2411. Type-locality: Panzos, Guatemala.
Anolis aureolus Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22:390. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: Yucatán and Guatemala; restricted to Chichén Itzá, Yucatán, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor (1950:64).
Anolis acutirostris Ives, 1891, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1891:459. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: Citilpech, Yucatán, Mexico.
Anolis limifrons rodriguezii-Stuart, 1948, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 69:49
Norops rodriguezi-Campbell, 1998, Amph. Rept. N. Guatemala, Yucatán, Belize, 380 pp.[136]

DISTRIBUTION: Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Mexico) through most of the Yucatán Peninsula, northern Guatemala, northern Guatemala, and Belize to Honduras. It ranges from near sea-level to 1330 m. Petén, Mayan, Mican, Minan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Norops sagrei (Duméril and Bibron, 1837)
Anolis Sagrei Duméril and Bibron, 1837, Erp. Gén. 4:149. Holotype: MNHN. Type-locality: Cuba.
Anolis Sagraei-Bocourt, 1873, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 80, pl. 15, fig. 14. [Unjustified emendation.]
Anolis sagrae-Boulenger, 1885, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus. 2:40. [Unjustified emendation.]

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic coast of central Mexico to Costa Rica and in southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, and Jamaica. It occurs in the coastal region of eastern Departamento de Izabal at elevations close to sea-level. This species has been able to sucessfully establish colonies through maritime introduction on many Caribbean islands, the east coast of Middle America, and Florida. Petén Area (map).

Norops sericeus (Hallowell, 1856)
Anolis sericeus Hallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1856:227. Holotype: ANSP. Type-locality: El Euceros de Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
Anolis sallaei Günther, 1859, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1859:421. Holotype: BMNH. Type locality: Central America; stated to be Mexico by Boulenger (1894:80).
Anolis heliactin Cope, 1864, Poc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia1864:172. Holotype: ANSP. Type locality: Mexico.
Anolis ustus Cope, 1864, Poc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia1864:172. Holotype: ANSP. Type locality: Belize.
Anolis Jacobi Bocourt, 1873, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 73, pl. 13, fig. 8. [Specific name is spelled Jabobi on p. 73 and Jacobis on p. 74, but intent is clear.] Holotype: MNHN. Type locality: Veracruz; restricted to Veracruz, Veracruz, by Smith and Taylor (1950:68).
Anolis ustus wellbornae Ahl, 1940, Sitz. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin 1940:246. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: El Salvador.
Anolis sericeus sericeus-Duellman, 1965, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15: 596. [By fiat.]
Anolis sericeus ustus-Duellman, 1965, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15: 596.

DISTRIBUTION: From Tamaulipas on the Atlantic versant and from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on the Pacific versant southward through Central America to Costa Rica at elevations from near sea-level to about 900 m. Petén, Mayan, Mican, Minan, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).

Norops tropidonotus (Peters, 1863)
Anolis tropidonotus Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1863:135. Holotye: XXXX. Type-locality: "Huanusco, Veracruz." Smith and Taylor (1950:60) suggested this is in error for Huatusco, Veracruz.
Anolis metallicus Bocourt, 1873, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris (5)17:1. Holotype: XXXX. Type locality: Mexico.
Norops yucatanicus Barbour and Cole, 1906, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 50:149. Holotype: XXXX. Type-locality: Chichén Itzá, Yucatán, Mexico.
Anolis tropidonous tropidonotus-Alvarez del Toro and Smith, 1956, Herpetologica 12:9.

DISTRIBUTION: Veracruz (Mexico) through the Yucatán Peninsula to northern Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras at elevations from near sea-level to about 600 m. Petén and Minan Areas (map).

Norops uniformis (Cope, 1885)
Anolis uniformis Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22:392. Syntypes (23): USNM 6774 [6 specimens], 24734­48, 24750, 24859, and 24749, which was exchanged with MCZ in 1915. Type-locality: Guatemala and Yucatán; restricted to two mi north of Santa Teresa, El Petén, Guatemala, by Smith and Taylor (1950).
Anolis ruthveni Stuart, 1935, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 310:1. Holotype: UMMZ. Type-locality: Two mi north of Santa Teresa, El Petén, Guatemala.
Anolis humilis uniformis-Stuart, 1948, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 69:48.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic lowlands of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and northern Honduras at elevations from near sea-level to 900 m. Petén, Mayan, Mican, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


FAMILY SCINCIDAE

Genus Eumeces Wiegmann, 1834
Eumeces Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetol. Mexicana, 54 pp.[36]. Type-species: Lacerta fasciata Linnaeus (1758).

CONTENT: Thirty-nine species.

Eumeces sumichrasti (Cope, 1866)
Plistodon sumichrasti Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18: 321. Holotype: USNM 6601. Type-locality: Potrero, Veracruz, Mexico, 590 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico to Guatemala and Honduras. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, and Mican Areas (map).


Genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826
Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Classif. Rept., p. 23. Type-species: Mabuya dominicensis Fitzinger.

CONTENT: About 85 species.


Mabuya brachypoda Taylor, 1956
Mabuya brachypodus Taylor, 1956, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38: 308 (fig. 76). Holotype: KU 36258. Type-locality: "4 km. ESE of Los Angelles de Tilarán, Guanacaste," Costa Rica.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico to Costa Rica. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, and Zacapan Areas (map).


Genus Mesoscincus Griffith, Ngo, and Murphy, 2000
Mesoscincus Griffith, Ngo, and Murphy, 2000, Russian J. Herpetol. 7:1­16[10]. Type-species: Eumeces schwartzei Fischer (1884).

CONTENT: Three species

Mesoscincus schwartzei (Fischer, 1884)
Eumeces schwartzei Fischer, 1884, Abh. Geb. Naturw. herausg. Naturw. Ver. Hamburg (8)2:1­6.
Mesoscincus schwartzei-Griffith, Ngo, and Murphy, 2000, Russian J. Herpetol. 7:1­16[10].

DISTRIBUTION:
Southern Mexico to northern Guatemala. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, and Mican Areas (map).


Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger, 1843
Sphenomorphus Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 106 pp.[23]. Type-species: Lygosoma melanopogon Duméril and Bibron, 1839.

CONTENT: Many species, worldwide.

Sphenomorphus assatum (Cope, 1864)
Lampropholis assatus Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.. Philadelphia 1864: 179. Holotype: ANSP 9465. Type-locality: Volcán Isalco, El Salvador.

DISTRIBUTION: Colima (Mexico) southward through Guatemala to El Salvador. Fuegan, Escuintlan, and Grijalvan Areas (map).


Spenomorphus cherriei (Cope, 1893)
Mocoa cherriei Cope, 1893, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 31: 339. Holotype: AMNH 9531. Type locality: Palmar, Costa Rica.

DISTRIBUTION: Tabasco (Mexico) southward through Central America to Panama. This species occurs sympatrically with S. incertum at about 1400 m in the vicinity of San Juan Chamelco, Alta Verapaz. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, and Merendón (map).


Sphenomorphus incertum (Stuart, 1940)
Lygosoma incertum Stuart, 1940, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 421: 10. Holotype: FMNH 20307. Type-locality: Volcán Tajumulco, Guatemala, 5500 feet.

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala. This species occurs sympatrically with S. cherriei at about 1400 m in the vicinity of San Juan Chamelco, Alta Verapaz. Quecchian, Minan, and Fuegan Areas (map).

FAMILY TEIIDAE
Genus Ameiva Meyer, 1795
Ameiva Meyer, 1795, Synop. Rept., p. 27. Type-species: Lacerta americana Gmelin [= Lacerta ameiva Linnaeus].

CONTENT: About 15 species.


Ameiva chaitzami Stuart, 1942
Ameiva chaitzami Stuart, 1942, Proc. Bil. Soc. Washington 55: 143. Holotype: UMMZ 90638 [listed as 90368 in original description]. Type-locality: Along Cahabon­Coban trail about 2 km N Finca Canihor (about 38 km airline ENE Coban), Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Disjunct distribution in Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala. Petén, Quecchian, and Grijalvan Areas (map).


Ameiva festiva (Lichtenstein, 1856)
Cnemidophorus festivus Lichtenstein, 1856, Nomencl. Rept. Amph. Mus. Zool. Berol., p. 13. Type: Not traced. Type-locality: Veragoa, Panama.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico through Guatemala and Central America to Colombia in South America. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, and probably Jalapan Areas (map).

Ameiva undulata (Wiegmann, 1834)
Cnemidophorus undulatus Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetol. Mex., p. 27. Holotype: ZMB. Type locality: Mexico, by inference.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico to Costa Rica. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chuacús, Zacapan, Salaman, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1839
Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 154. Type-species: Seps murinus Laurenti.

CONTENT: Probably about 65 species.


Cnemidophorus angusticeps Cope, 1877
Cnemidophorus angusticeps Cope, 1877, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 17: 95. Syntypes: USNM 24876­78. Type-locality: "Yucatán," Restricted to Chichén Itzá by Smith and Taylor (1950: 183).

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map).



Cnemidophorus deppii Wiegmann, 1834
Cnemidophorus deppii Wiegmann, 1834, Herpetol. Mex., p. 29. Holotype: ZMB. Type-locality: Mexico. Restricted to Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, by Smith and Taylor (1950: 179).

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Veracruz and Michoacán (Mexico) to Guatemala. Zacapa, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, and Escuintlan (map).


Cnemidophorus lemniscatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Lacerta lemniscata Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 209. Syntypes: NHRM 126(2), 127. Type-locality: Guiana.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala southward through Central America to Brazil. Petén Area (map).


Cnemidophorus maslini Fritts, 1969
Cnemidophorus cozumela maslini Fritss, 1969, Copeia 1969(3): 519­535[524]. Holotype: UIMNH 82699. Type-locality: "16 miles SW Champotón (or 24 miles NE Sabuncuy), Campeche," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala and adjacent Mexico. Petén Area (map).


Cnemidophorus motaguae Sackett, 1941.
Cnemidophorus motaguae Sackett, 1941, Natulae Naturae, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 77: 1 (figs. 1­3). Holotype ANSP 22143. Type-locality: Motagua River Valley, 10 km NE Zacapa, Zacapa, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Chiapas (Mexico) through Guatemala into El Salvador and Honduras. Zacapan, Salaman, and Jalapan Areas (map).


FAMILY GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE

Genus Gymnophthalmus Merrem, 1820
Gymnophthalmus Merrem, 1820, Syst. Amph., p. 74. Type-species: Lacerta quadrilineata Linnaeus.

CONTENT: Six species.


Gymnophthalmus speciosus (Hallowell, 1871)
Blepharictisis speciosa Hallowell, 1861 [dated 1860], Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1860: 484. Holotype: ANSP. Type-locality: Nicaragua.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala and Belize southward through Central America to northern South America. Zacapan, Salaman, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan (map).


FAMILY XANTUSIIDAE Baird, 1859

Genus Lepidophyma Duméril, 1851
Lepidophyma A. Duméril, in Duméril and Duméril, 1851, Cat. Méth. Coll. Rept. Mus. Paris: 137. Type-species: Lepidophyma flavimaculatus A. Duméril.
Poriodogaster Smith in Gray, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863: 154. Type-species: Poriodogaster grayii Smith.
Akleistops Müller, 1878, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, 6:390. Type-species: Akleistops guatemalensis Müller.
Gaigeia Smith, 1939, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 24:24. Type-species: Lepidophyma gaigeae Mosauer.
Impensodens Langebartel, 1953, Cranbrook Inst. Sci. 33:102. Type-species: Impensodens arizeloglyphus Langebartel.

CONTENT: About 15 species.


Lepidophyma flavimaculatum A. Duméril, 1851
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum Duméril, 1851, Catal. Method., p. 138. Holotype: MNHN 782. Type-locality: Peten, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Oaxaca, Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas, and Quintana Roo, Mexico (Bezy, 1984; Lee, 1980) through northern Guatemala and Belize, thence southward to Panama (Peters, 1874). Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).

Lepidophyma mayae Bezy, 1973
Lepidophyma mayae Bezy, 1973, Contr. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angels Co. 239: 1­7[1]. Holotype: KU 59554. Type-locality: "Chinajá, elev. 140 m, Depto. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: Northern highlands and foothills of Guatemala. Petén, Mican, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).


Lepidophyma smithii Bocourt, 1876
Lepidophyma Smithii Bocourt, 1876, Jour. Zool. Paris 5:402. Syntypes: MNHN 68-16 [2 specimens, Guatemala], 4323 and 76-95 [4 specimens, Tehuantepec and western Guatemala]. Type-locality: Tehuantepec and western Guatemala; restricted to Mazatenango, Suchitepequez, Guatemala, by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 199:1­253[152].
Akleistops guatemalensis Müller, 1878, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges Basel 6:390, pls. 1-2. Lectotype: NHMB 3750. Type-locality: Mazatenango, Guatemala.
Lepidophyma maculatum-Taylor , 1955, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 37:549 [in error for flavimaculatum, according to Peters and Donoso-Barros, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 297:163].
Lepidophyma flavimaculatum smithii-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:58.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas (Mexico) through Guatemala to El Salvador. Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


FAMILY XENOSAURIDAE

Genus Xenosaurus Peters, 1861
Xenosaurus Peters, 1861, Monatsber. Akad. Wissen. Berlin 1861: 453. Type-species: Xenosaurus fasciatus Peters [= Cubina grandis Gray].

CONTENT: About a dozen species, most of which are undescribed.


Xenosaurus rackhami Stuart, 1941
Xenosaurus rackhami Stuart, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54: 47. Holotype: UMMZ 89072. Type-locality: Finca Volcan (49 km due E Coban), Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, 4000 feet.

DISTRIBUTION: Chiapas (Mexico) to the mountains of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Quecchian and Cuchumatan Areas (map).

ORDER SQUAMATA-SNAKES


FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE

Genus Leptotyphlops Fitzinger
Leptotyphlops Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 24. Type species: Typhlops nigricans Schlegel.

CONTENT: About 100 species.

Leptotyphlops goudoti (Duméril and Bibron, 1844)
Stenosoma Goudotii Duméril and Bibron, 1844, Erp. Gén. 6: 330. Type-locality: Valley of Río Magdalena, Colombia.

DISTRIBUTION: Central Mexico to Colombia and Venezuela. Petén, Quecchian, Cuchumatan, Salaman, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


FAMILY TYPHLOPIDAE


Genus Ramphotyphlops Fitzinger, 1843
Ramphotyphlops Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 24. Type-species: Typhlops multilineatus Schlegel, 1839, by original designation.

CONTENT: About 50 species worldwide.

Ramphotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803)
Eryx braminus Daudin, 1803, Hist. Nat. Gén. Part. Rept. 7: 436 pp.[279]. Type: Based on pl. 43 ("Rondoo Talooloo Pam") in Russell (1796). Type-locality: "Vizagapatam," India.

DISTRIBUTION: Several specimens collected in Guatemala City, establishes the presence of this species in Guatemala. This species is commonly introduced in the soil transported on the roots of plants. This species is an extremely good colonizer. It is thought to be endemic to the humid lowland tropics of southeastern Asia from India and Sri Lanka east to southern Japan and south to Timor Island (de Haas, 1950). This species has also been reported from many other localities, including South Africa, Madagascar, Guam, Oahu, Chrisitmas Island, and western Mexico (Loveridge, 1945; Storr, 1968). Chimaltenangan Area (map).


Genus Typhlops Oppel, 1811
Typhlops Oppen, 1811, Ord. Fam. Gattung. Rept., p. 54. Type-species: Anguis lumbricalis Linnaeus.

CONTENT: About 200 species worldwide.


Typhlops microstomus Cope, 1866
Typhlops microstomus Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18: 125. Holotype: USNM 61064. Type-locality: Yucatan.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map).


Typhlops tenuis Salvin, 1860
Typhlops tenuis Salvin, 1860, Proc. Zool. Soc.. London 1860: 454. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.11.71. Type-locality: Coban, Guatemala.
Typhlops perditus Peters, 1869, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 7: 435. Holotype: ZMB. Type locality: Orizaba, Veracruz.
Typhlops perditus-Bocourt, 1882, Miss. Sci. Mexique, p. 499 (figs. 3­3c, pl. 30, fig. 3).

DISTRIBUTION: Central Veracruz (Mexico) through Guatemala to Honduras. Quecchian, Minan, and Cuchumatan (map).


FAMILY BOIDAE

Genus Boa Linnaeus, 1758
Boa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1: 824 pp.[214]. Type-species: Boa constrictor Linnaeus, 1758, by subsequent designation of Fitzinger (1943).

CONTENT: One species according to some authorities who prefer to restrict this genus to the New World, or 4 species if three species from Madagascar are included.


Boa constrictor Linnaeus, 1758
Boa constrictor Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1: 824 pp.[215]. Syntypes: NHRM 10 and NHRM 20001. Type-locality: "Indiis." Obviously in error.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Mexico to northern Argentina. Petén, Mayan, Mican, Quecchian, Minan, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Corallus Daudin, 1803
Corallus Daudin, 1803, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philomath. Paris (2)3: 187­188[187], Type-species: Corallus obtusirostris Daudin, 1803 [= Corallus hortulanus Linnaeus, 1758].

CONTENT: Seven species.

Corallus annulatus (Cope, 1875)
Xiphostoma annulatum Cope, 1875, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)8: 93­154[129; pl. 28, fig. 6]. Holotype: USNM 32480. Type-locality: "Costa Rica."
Corallus annulatus-Boulenger, 1893, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 1: 448 pp.[102].

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala through Central America to Pacific Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. Petén and probably the Mican and Merendón Areas (map).


FAMILY LOXOCEMIDAE

Genus Loxocemus Cope, 1861
Loxocemus Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 73­77[76]. Type-species: Loxocemus bicolor Cope, 1861.
Plastoseryx Jan, 1862, Arch. Naturgesch. 28: 238­252 [244]. Type-species: Plastoeryx bronni Jan, 1862 [= Loxocemus bicolor Cope, 1861].

CONTENT: A single species.


Loxocemus bicolor Cope, 1861
Loxocemus bicolor Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 73­77 [77]. Holotype: USNM 4949, now presumed lost. Type-locality: "La Unión, San Salvador" [El Salvador].

DISTRIBUTION: Nayarit (Mexico) southward to northwestern Costa Rica; also occurring in several dry interior valleys of Guatemala and Honduras. Zacapan, Jalapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


FAMILY TROPIDOPHIIDAE

Genus Ungaliophis Müller, 1880
Ungaliophis Müller, 1880, Kat. Herpetol. Samml. Basler Mus. (Erster Nach.), 49 pp. [26]. Type species: Ungaliophis continentalis Müller, 1880, by monotypy.
Peropodum Bocourt in Duméril, Bocourt, and Mocquard, 1882, Miss. Sci. Mexique, Rept., livr. 8: 489­528[522]. Type-species: Peropodum guatemalensis Bocourt, 1882 [= Ungaliophiis continentalis Müller, 1880].

CONTENT: Two species.


Ungaliophis continentalis Müller, 1880
Ungaliophis continentalis Müller, 1880, Kat. Herpetol. Samml. Basler Mus. (Erster Nach.), 49 pp.[26]. Holotype: NMBA 427. Type-locality: "Guatémala." Given more precisely as "Retaluléu, costa grande v. Guatémala" in Müller, 1878).

DISTRIBUTION: From Chiapas (Mexico) southward through Central America to Colombia. Escuintlan Area (map).

FAMILY COLUBRIDAE

Genus Adelphicos Jan
Adelphicos Jan, 1862, Arch. Zool. 2:18. Type-species: Adelphicos quadrivirgatum Jan, 1862, by monotypy.
Rhegnops Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1866:128. Type-species: Rhegnops visoninus Cope, 1866, by monotypy.

Adelphicos daryi Campbell and Ford, 1982
Adelphicos daryi Campbell and Ford, 1982, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 100:3 [Figs. 2, 4­6]. Holotype: KU 187260. Type-locality: "San Jorge Muxbal, 5.5 km W San José Pinula, Department of Guatemala, Guatemala, elevation 1844 m."

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known only from a small area in south-central Gautemala, including the western portion of the Las Nubes Block in the vicinity of Santa Catarina Pinula and the depresion south of the Ríos Pinula and Villalobos south of Guatemala City, where it is known from near Villa Canales and Villanueva. Despite the restricted distribution of this species, it has been found in several different vegetation types. The type-series was secured in moist pine oak forest (Lower Montane Moist Forest) at elevations of 1829­2134 m. The specimen taken from near Villa Canales was taken from within a moist ravine at 1480 m in Subtropical West Forest, whereas the specimen from near Villanueva was unearthed at about 1300 m in disturbed habitat that apparently was once Subtropical Moist or Dry Forest. Jalapan Area (map).

Adelphicos ibarrorum Campbell and Brodie, 1988
Adelphicos ibarrorum Campbell and Brodie, 1988, Herpetologica 44:416, Figs. 1­2. Holotype: UTA R- 18696. Type-locality: "3.0 km SSE Chichicastenango, in valley between Paxot and Caminibal, 2100 m, Departamento de Quiché, Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: In the highlands of south-central Guatemala that lie north and east of Lago de Atitlán. In Chimaltenango this species has been found at 2000 m in forests containing mostly pine, and in Quiché it has been encountered in humid pine-oak forests at about 2100 m. Chimaltenangan Area (map).

Adelphicos veraepacis Stuart, 1941
Adelphicos quadrivirgatum- Bocourt, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mex. Am. Cent., 554, Pl. 32, Figs. 11-11e.
Adelphicos veraepacis Stuart, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 452:5. Holotype: UMMZ 89073. Type-locality: "Cloud forest above Finca Samac, 7 km. west of Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Altitude, about 1500 meters."
Adelphicos veraepacis veraepacis-Smith, 1942, Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci. 8:180.
Adelphicos veraepacis-Campbell and Ford, 1982, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 100:6, Figs. 4­6.

DISTRIBUTION: The northern mountains of Guatemala, including the highlands of Alta Verapaz, the Sierra de las Minas, the Montañas de Cuilco, and probably the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes. The elevational distribution for this species is from about 1500 (occasionally as low as 1200) to 2200 m in Lower Montane Wet and Moist forests. Quecchian, Minan, Cuilcan, and Cuchumatan (map),

Adelphicos quadrivirgatum Jan, 1862
Adelphicos quadrivirgatus Jan, 1862, Arch. Zool. Anat. Fis. 2:18, Pl. 8. Holotype: Milan Museum. Type-locality: Mexico.
Rhegnops sargii Fischer, 1885, Jahrb. Wissen. Anst. Hamburg 2:92. Syntypes (3): Staatslich Museum fur Naturkunde, Stuttgart. Type-locality: Guatemala. Exchanged to BM (now BM 1946.1.6.28); this specimen designated lectoype by Smith and Taylor, 1945:31.
Adelphicos sargii-Cope, 1887, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 32:85.
Adelphicos quadrivirgatus sargii-Smith, 1942, Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci. 8:192, Fig. 4.
Adelphicos quadrivirgatus sargi-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122:88.
Rhegnops visoninus Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:128. Holotype: USNM 24899. Type-locality: British Honduras [Belize]; given erroneously as Honduras by Peters and Orejas-Miranda (1970:16).
Adelphicos vinsoninus-Cope, 1887, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 32:85.
Adelphicos quadrivirgatus visoninus- 1942, Smith, Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci. 8:186, Fig. 2.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras. The subspecies A. q. sargii occurs along the Pacific versant of eastern Chiapas (Mexico) and western Guatemala. Adelphicos q. visoninus ranges on the Atlantic versant from Tabasco (Mexico) southeastward into northern Honduras, exclusive of the northern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Minan, Merendón, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Genus Amastridium Cope, 1861
Amastridium Cope, 1861 [dated 1860], Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12:370. Type species: Amastridium veliferum Cope.
Mimometopon Werner, 1903, Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wissen. 22::343­384 [349, Pl. 1, Figs. 3-5]. Type species: Mimometopon sapperi Werner, 1903.

CONTENT: One species.

Amastridium veliferum Cope, 1861
Amastridium veliferum Cope, 1861 [dated 1860], Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1860: 370. Holotype: ANSP. Type-locality: Cocuyas de Veraguas, N. Grenada.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant from Nuevo León (Mexico) southward to Panama, and on the Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) and western Guatemala. Petén, Mayan, Mican, Minan, Quecchian, and probably Fuegan Area (map).


Genus Chapinophis Campbell and Smith, 1998
Chapinophis Campbell and Smith, 1998, Herpetologica 54(2): 207­220[209]. Type-species: Chapinophis xanthocheilus Campbell and Smith, 1998, by monotypy.

CONTENT: One species.

Chapinophis xanthocheilus Campbell and Smith, 1998
Chapinophis xanthocheilus Campbell and Smith, 1998, Herpetologica 54(2): 207­220[209]. Holotype: UTA R-35919. Type-locality: "approximately 5 km ENE Finca Miranda on trail to Aldea Vega Larga, 2300 m, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the western portion of the Sierra de las Minas in Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. Minan Area (map).


Genus Clelia Fitzinger, 1826
Clelia Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept., 31 and 55. Type species: Coluber clelia Daudin on page 31 and Clelia daudinii [= Coluber clelia Daudin] on page 55.

CONTENT:


Clelia clelia Daudin, 1803
Clelia clelia Daudin, 1803, Hist. Nat. Rept. 6, An XI:330, Pl. 78. Holotype: MNHN; not identifiable, according to Stuart, 1963. Type-locality: Surinam [Suriname].
Oxyrhopus plumbeus-Günther, 1885, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[167].
Clelia clelia clelia-Smith, 1942, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 92:394.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant of northern Guatemala and Belize southward through Central America to South America. Petén, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, and probably Merendón Areas (Map).


Clelia scytalina Cope, 1866
Scolecophis scytalinus Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:320. Holotype: USNM 6581. Type-locality: near Tabasco, Mexico.
Oxyrhopus proximus Bocourt, 1897, Miss. Sci. Mex., Rept., 856, Pl. 67, Figs. 3-4. Syntypes (7): MNHN 7871, 99-54, 99-55 (6 specimens); Instituto Butantan 17743. Type-locality: western [southern] slope of Volcan Atitlan, Guatemala.
Clelia clelia clelia-Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187: 36 [in part].

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant of Veracruz (Mexico) and the Pacific versant of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Mexico) southward to South America. Petén, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Coluber Linnaeus, 1758
Coluber Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1: 824 pp. [216]. Type species: Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, 1758.

CONTENT:


Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, 1758
Coluber constrictor Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1: 824 pp. [216]. Holotype: Not designated. Type-locality: Canada.
Zamenis stejnegerianus Cope, 1895, Am. Nat. 29:678. Holotype: USNM 17065. Type-locality: Cameron County, Texas.
Coluber ortenburgeri Stuart, 1934, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 284:1. Holotype: UMMZ 75588. Type-locality: Kalto Sabana, 3 mi. W La Libertad, El Peten, Guatemala.
Coluber constrictor stejnegerianus-Muliak and Muliak, 1942, Copeia 1942:14.

DISTRIBUTION: [general dist. of species] The subspecies C. c. stejnegerianus occurs in the lowlands of the Atlantic versant and coastal plain from southern Texas southward through Mexico to the Departamentos of Petén and Izabal in Guatemala; its distribution apparently becomes quite disjunct in the southern portion of its range. Petén and Minan Areas (map).


Genus Coniophanes Hallowell, 1860
Coniophanes Hallowell in Cope, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12:248. Type species: Coronella fissidens Günther, 1858.

CONTENT: Thirteen species.

Coniopahens bipunctatus Günther
Coronella bipunctata Günther, 1858, Catal. Colub. Snakes Brit. Mus., 36. Holotype: BM 1946.1.9.58. Type-locality: not given; both Schmidt, 1941, and Stuart, 1963, suspected the type was from Belize.
Coniophanes bipunctatus bipunctatus-Smith, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 53:59. [By fiat.]

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic lowlands from southern Veracruz (Mexico) southeastward through northern Guatemala and Belize to northern Honduras. Petén Area (map).


Coniophanes fissidens Günther
Coronella fissidens Günther, 1858, Catal. Colub. Snakes Brit. Mus., 36. Syntypes (9): BM 1946.6.1.8.16-21, 1946.1.9.61, and 1946.1.3.2-3. Type-locality: Mexico.
Coniophanes punctigularis Cope, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12:248. Holotype: ANSP 3742. Type-locality: Honduras; Smith suggested the type probably came from the Pacific vesant.
Dromicus chitalonensis Müller, 1878, Verhand. Natur. Gesell. Basel 6:407. Lectotype: NHMB 2112 designated by Forcart in Stuart, 1963. Type-locality: Hacienda Chitalon, near Mazatenango, Guatemala.
Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis-Bo court, 1886: 652.
Coniophanes proterops-Bocourt, 1886:654.
Tachymenis fissidens-Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.161 [in part].
Coniophanes fissidens fissidens-Bailey, 1937, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 362:5 [in part].
Coniophanes fissidens punctigularis-Smith, 1941, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 91:107.

DISTRIBUTION: [general range of species]. The subspecies C. f. fissidens occurs on the Atlantic versant and lowlands from southern Veracruz (Mexico) southward into South America. Coniophanes f. punctigularis inhabits the Pacific versant from the Isthmus of Tehunatepec (Mexico) to Costa Rica. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Meredón, Fuegan and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Coniophanes imperialis (Kennicott, 1859)
Taeniophis imperialis Kennicott in Baird, 1859, Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound. Surv. 2: 23 (pl. 19, fig. 1). Holotype: USNM 2060. Type-locality: Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Dromicus (Dromicus) clavatus Peters, 1864, Monatsb. Akad. Wissen. Berlin 1864:399. Holotype: ZMB 5106. Type-locality: Mexico.
Tachymenis fissidens-Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[161] [in part].
Coniophanes imperialis clavatus-Bailey, 1937, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 362:6.

DISTRIBUTION: [species]. The subspecies C. i. clavatus ranges from the Atlantic lowlands of southern Veracruz (Mexico) to northern Guatemala. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, and probably Mican Areas (map).


Coniophanes piceivittis Cope, 1869
Coniophanes piceivittis Cope, 1869, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 11: 149. Cotypes: USNM 30265. Type-locality: Chihuitán, Oaxaca, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Guerrero (Mexico) to Costa Rica. Escuintlan, Jalapan, Zacapan, and Grijalvan Areas (map).

Coniophanes quinquevittatus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854
Homolopsis quinque-vittatus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7:975. Holotype: MNHN 516. , preocuppied by Tropidodipsas fasciata Günther, 1858.: None given, but two speciemens from El Petén, Guatemala, reported in type description.
Hydrocalamus quinquevittatus-Bocourt, 1895, p. 811, Pl. 55, Figs. 6-6f [1893]; Pl. 60, Figs. 3-3a.
Coniophanes quinquevittatus-Bailey, 1938, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. Arts Let. 24:26, Pl. 1, Fig. 6.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic lowlands from southern Veracruz (Mexico) into northern Guatemala. Petén Area (map).


Coniophanes schmidti Bailey, 1937
Coniophanes schmidti Bailey, 1937, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 362: 1­3. Holotype: UMMZ 73043. Type-locality: Chichén Itzám Yucatán, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map).


Genus Conophis Peters, 1860
Conophis Peters, 1860, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1860:519. Type species: Conophis vittatus Peters.

CONTENT: Two species.

Conophis lineatus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854
Tomodon lineatus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 936 (pl. 73). Holotype: MNHN. Type-locality: Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Oaxaca and Veracruz (Mexico) to Costa Rica. Petén, Quecchian, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Crisantophis Villa, 1971
Crisantophis Villa, 1971, J. Herpetol. 5: 173­177[173]. Type-species: Conophis nevermanni Dunn.

CONTENT: One species


Crisantophis nevermanni (Dunn, 1937)
Conophis nevermanni Dunn, 1937, Copeia 1937:213-215. Holotype: ANSP 22423. Type locality: Río Peas de Aserri, Costa Rica.
Crisantophis nevermanni-Villa, 1971, J. Herpetol. 5: 173­177[173].

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant from southeastern Guatemala to northwestern Costa Rica. This species inhabits tropical dry or tropical very dry forest. Escuintlan Area (map).


Genus Dendrophidion Fitzinger, 1843
Dendrophidion Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 26. Type species: Herpetodryas dendrophis Schlegel.

CONTENT: About eight species.


Dendrophidion nuchalis (Peters, 1864
Herpetodryas nuchalis Peters, 1864, Monatsber. K. Akad. Wiss. Berling 1863: 285. Neotype: USNM 129579, desingated by Lieb (1988). Type-locality: "Venezuela: Aragua Prov.: Camp Rafael Rangel" by neotype designation.
Dendrophidion clarkii Dunn, 1933, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 78. Holotype: MCZ 34878. Type-locality: El Valle de Antón, Panamá.

DISTRIBUTION: Belize and Guatemala southward through Central America to Pacific Colombia and western Ecuador. Petén, Mayan, and Minan Areas (map).


Dendrophidion vinitor Smith, 1941
Dendrophidion vinitor Smith, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54: 74. Holotype: USNM110662. Type-locality: Piedras Negras, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Veracruz (Mexico) southward to Panama. Petén and Quecchian Areas (map).


Genus Dipsas Laurenti, 1768
Dipsas Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Synop. Rept., p. 89. Type-species: Dipsas indica Laurenti.

CONTENT: Probably about 35 species.


Dipsas brevifacies (Cope, 1866)
Tropidodipsas brevifacies Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phiadelphia 18: 127. Holotype: USNM 24886. Type-locality: Yucatán, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map).


Genus Dryadophis Stuart, 1939
Eudryas Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 26 [preoccupied by Eudryas Boisduval, 1836; Arthropoda, Insecta]. Type species: Coluber boddaerti Sentzen.
Dryadophis Stuart, 1939, Copeia 1939:55 [substitute name for Eudryas Fitzinger, 1843].

CONTENT: About a dozen species.


Dryadophis dorsalis (Bocourt, 1890)
Drymobius (Eudryas) dorsalis Bocourt, 1890, Miss. Sci. Mex. Rept., 724, Pl. 51, Figs. 2-2d. Syntypes (2): MNHN 7391 and 91-257. Type-locality: Plateau of Guatemala.
Dryadophis dorsalis-Stuart, 1941, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 49:95, Pl. 1, Fig. 6; Pl. 4, Fig. 5.

DISTRIBUTION: Foothills and mountains of western Guatemala to northern Nicaragua. Minan, Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, and Fuegan Areas (map).

Dryadophis melanolomus (Cope, 1868)
Masticophis melanolomus Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20:134. Holotype: 24985. Type-locality: Yucatan, Mexico.
Herpetodryas laevis Fischer, 1881, Arch. Natur. 47:227, Pl. 11, Figs. 4-6. Holotype: Staatslich Museum fur Naturkunde Stuttgart 2032; now apparently lost. Type-locality: Guatemala.
Dromicus coeruleus Fischer, 1885, Jahrb. Hamburg Wissen. Anst. 2:103, Pl. 4, Fig. 7. Holotype: Naturhistorisches Museum Brunswick 5030b; present whereabouts unknown. Type locality: Coban, Guatemala.
Drymobius (Eudryas) laevis-Bocourt, 1890, 722, Pl. 51, Figs. 6-6d.
Drymobius (Eudryas) caeruleus-Bocourt, 1890, 727, Pl. 51, Figs. 4-4d.
Drymobius boddaertii-Günther, 1894, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[125] [in part].
Drymobius boddaerti-Günther, 1894, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[125] [in part].
Drymobius boddaerti modesta Werner, 1903, Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wissen. 22::343­384 [346]. Holotype: ZSM 1627/0. Type-locality: Coban, Guatemala.
Dryadophis melanolomus laevis-Stuart, 1941, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 49:86.
Dryadophis melanolomus melanolomus-Stuart, 1941, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 49:88, Pl. 4, Fig. 4.
Dryadophis melanolomus tehuanae Smith, 1943, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 93:420. Holotype: USNM 110917. Type-locality: Cerro Guengola, Oaxaca, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: [species]. The subspecies D. m. melanolomus occurs throughout most of the lowlands of the Yucatán Peninsula, reaching about the central portion of the Departamento de Petén, Guatemala. Dryadophis m. laevis occurs in the foothills and mountains of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Along the Pacific versant, D. m. tehuanae ranges from Nayarit (Mexico) southward to western Guatemala. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Merendón, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Genus Drymarchon Fitzinger, 1843
Drymarchon Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 26. Type species: Coluber corais Boie.

CONTENT: Currently only one wide-ranging species recognized.


Drymarchon corais (Boie, 1827)
Coluber corais Boie, 1827, Isis von Oken 1827: 537. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: America.
Spilotes melanurus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7:224. Holotype: MNHN 63 335. Type-locality: Mexico.
Spilotes corais melanurus-Bocourt, 1888, 687, Pl. 44m Figs. 1-1e [in part].
Spilotes corais, var. 1, Günther, 1894, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[116] [in part].
Drymarchon corais melanurus-Stejneger and Barbour,1917, Checklist N. Am. Amph. Rept., ed. 1, 85 [in part].
Drymarchon corais unicolor Smith, 1941, J. Washington Acad. Sci. 31:470. Holotype: USNM 110865. Type-locality: Finca La Esperanza, near Escuintla, Chiapas, Mexico.
Drymarchon corais rubidus Smith, 1941, J. Washington Acad. Sci. 31:474. Holotype: USNM 46430. Type-locality: Rosario, Sinaloa, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern United States to northern Argentina. The distributions of the three subspecies occurring in Guatemala are as follows: D. c. melanurus inhabits the Atlantic versant from Veracruz (Mexico) southward to Nicaragua where it crosses over onto the Pacific slopes and continues southward into South America; D. c. rubidus ranges from Sinaloa (Mexico) southward to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, entering the Río Grijalva Valley and barely entering Guatemala along the valleys of the tributaries of this river; D. c. unicolor occurs along the Pacific versant from Chiapas (Mexico) eastward through Guatemala to Nicaragua. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chuacús, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Drymobius Fitzinger, 1843
Drymobius Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 26. Type species: Herpetodryas margaritiferus Schlegel, 1837.

CONTENT:

Drymobius chloroticus (Cope, 1886)
Dendrophidium chloroticum Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 23:278. Holotype: USNM 6755. Type-locality: Guatemala; subsequently more precisely defined as "Coban, Alta Verapaz" by Cope, 1887.
Drymobius chloroticus-Cope, 1887, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 32:69.

DISTRIBUTION: Along the Atlantic versant from the foothills and mountains from San Luis Potosí southward to Honduras; on the Pacific versant from the Isthmus of Tehunatepec to Costa Rica. Quecchian, Minan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Drymobius margariterus (Schlegel, 1837)
Herpetodryas margaritiferus Schlegel, 1837, Ess. Phys. Serp., 184. Holotype: MNHN 7309. Type-locality: New Orleans [obviously in error]; restricted to Veracruz, Mexico, by Smith, 1942.
Drymobius margaritiferus [margaritiferus]-Bocourt, 1890, XXX, 716, Pl. 49, Figs. 2-2d.
Drymobius margaritiferus occidentalis Bocourt, 1890, Miss. Sci. Mex. Rept., 718. Holotype: MNHN 7395. Type-locality: Western [southern] versant of Guatemala near Volcan Atitlan.
Drymobius margaritiferus-Günther, 1894, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[125] [in part].
Drymobius margaritiferus margaritiferus-Smith and Taylor, 1945, 57.

DISTRIBUTION: Texas (United States) through Central America to South America. The subspecies D. m. margaritiferus ranges along the Atlantic versant and coastal plain from extreme southern Texas (USA) southward into northern South America. Drymobius m. occidentalis occurs on the Pacific slopes and lowlands from Chiapas (Mexico) eastward through Guatemala into El Salvador. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chuacús, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Cuilcan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).



Genus Elaphe Fitzinger
Elaphe Fitzinger in Wagler, 1833, Descrip. Icon. Amphib. 3, text to Pl. 27. Type species: Elaphe parreysii Fitzinger [= Coluber quatuorlineata Lacépède].

CONTENT:


Elaphe flavirufa (Cope, 1867)
Coluber flavirufus Cope, 1867, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1867: 319. Holotype: USNM 6566. Type-locality: Isamal, Yucatan, Mexico.
Elaphis pardalinus Peters, 1868, Monatsber. Acad. Wissen. Berlin 1868:642. Holotype: ZMB 3790. Type-locality: Unknown.
Elaphis rodriguezi Bocourt, 1887, Le Natur., ser 2, 14:168, Fig. Holotype: MNHN 88-154. Type-locality: Panzos, Guatemala.
Elaphe flavirufa flavirufa-Smith and Taylor, 1945, 59 [in part].
Elaphe flavirufa pardalina-Dowling, 1952, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 540:9, Pl. 1, Fig. d.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Mexico through Guatemala to Nicaragua. On the Atlantic versant of eastern Guatemala. Petén, Quecchian, and Zacapan Areas (map).


Genus Enulius Cope, 1870
Enulius Cope, 1870, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 11:558. Type species: Enulius murinus Cope [= Liophis flavitorques Cope].

CONTENT: Four species.


Enulius flavitorques Cope, 1868
Liophis flavitorques Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20:307. Holoytpe: ANSP 3695. Type-locality: Magdalena River, Colombia.
Enulius flavitorques-Dunn, 1937, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 89:415.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant from western Guatemala to Colombia. Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Ficimia Gray, 1849
Ficimia Gray, 1849, Catal. Snakes Brit. Mus., 80. Type species: Ficimia olivacea Gray.

CONTENT: Five species.


Ficimia publia Cope, 1866
Ficimia publia Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:126. Syntypes (2): USNM 16427-28. Type-locality: Yucatan, Mexico.
Ficimia publia publia-Smith, 1947, J. Washington Acad. Sci. 37:411.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Veracruz (Mexico) through Guatemala to Honduras. Along the Atlantic versant from Tabasco (Mexico) to norothern Honduras, and on the Pacific versant from Guerrero (Mexico) to eastern Guatemala. Petén, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Geophis Wagler, 1830
Catostoma Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 194. Type-species: Catostoma chalybeus Wagler, 1830, by monotypy.
Geophis Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 342. [Substitute name for Catostoma Wagler, 1830, to avoid confusion with Catastomus Lesueur, 1817: Chordata, Osteichthyes].
Rabdosoma Duméril, 1853, Mem. Acad. Sci. 23:440. Type-species: Rabdosoma semidoliatum Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, according to Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187:65.
Colobognathus Peters, 1859, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859:275. Type-species: Colobognathus hoffmanni Peters, 1859, by monotypy.
Geophidium Peters, 1861, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1861:923. Type-species: Geophidium dubium Peters, 1861, by monotypy.
Colophrys Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20:130. Type-species: Colophrys rhodogaster Cope, 1868, by monotypy.
Parageophis Bocourt, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mexique Am. Centr., Pt. 3:435 [proposed as a subgenus]. Type-species: Rabdosoma semidoliatum Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, by monotypy.
Dirosema Boulenger, 1894, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2:298. Type-species: Geophis bicolor Günther, 1868, by subsequent designation of Dunn, 1928, Am. Mus. Novitat. 314:2.

CONTENT: About 35 species.

Geophis cancellatus Smith, 1941
Geophis cancellatus Smith, 1941, Smithson. Misc. Coll. 99:1. Holotype: USNM 46440. Type locality: "Chicharras, Chiapas," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from a small area along the Pacific slopes of southwestern Guatemala and adjacent southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. This species occurs at elevations of 1035­1100 m above sea level in Subtropical West Forest. Fuegan Area (map).


Geophis carinosus Stuart, 1941
Geophis carinosus Stuart, 1941, Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 452:3. Holotype: UMMZ 89082. Type-locality: "Finca San Franciso, 27 km. northeast of Nebaj, El Quiché, Guatemala. Altitude, about 1175 meters."
DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant from Chiapas (Mexico) eastward through the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of northwestern Guatemala to the Sierra de Panpacché in the highlands of western Alta Verapaz. Its elevational distribution is from about 700 to 1500 m above sea level in Subtropical Rainforest and Subtropical Wet Forest. Mexican records of this species from Puebla, Oaxaca, and Veracruz may represent another species. Cuchumatan Area (map).


Geophis fulvoguttatus Mertens, 1952
Geophis fulvoguttatus Mertens, 1952, Zool. Anz. 149:134. Holotype: SMF 43248. Type locality: "Hacienda Monte Cristo, 2200 m. H., Gebirge von Metapan, Dept. Santa Ana, El Salvador."

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known only from one small highland ares that is trisected by the country boundaries of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. These highlands are most extensive in Guatemala; the highest peak in the region is Cerro Montecristo at 2416 m, on the summit of which lies the country marker for all three nations. To date, G. fulvoguttatus has not been collected in Guatemala, but its presence is almost certainly assured owing to the proximity of the type-locality in El Salvador and similar physiographic and ecological factors. This species occurs in Lower Montane Wet Forest at about 2200 m above sea level. Jalapan Area (map).


Geophis immaculatus Downs, 1967
Geophis immaculatus Downs, 1967, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 131:90. Holotype: UMMZ 107297. Type-locality: "Guatemala, Quetzaltenango, Finca Lorena."

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific slopes of southwestern Guatemala in the Departments of Quezaltenango and San Marcos. This species occurs at elevations of 1700­1829 m above sea level in Subtropical Wet Forest. Fuegan Area (map).


Geophis nasalis Cope, 1868
Catostoma nasale Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20:131, Fig. Syntypes (3): ANSP 3319-21; ANSP 3320 designated as lectotype by Downs (1967). Type-locality: "near the city of Guatemala," Guatemala.
Elapoides sieboldi-F. Müller, 1882, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel 7:142.
Geophis chalybaeus-Bocourt in Duméril, Bocourt, and Mocquard, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mexique Am. Cent., pt. 3:530, Pl. 31, Figs. 11-11c [in part].
Rhabdosoma nasale-Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22:385.
Geophis chalybaea-Günther, 1893, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[87] [in part].
Catostoma chalybeum-Amaral, 1930 [dated 1929], Mem. Inst. Butantan 4:191 [in part].
Geophis nasalis-Smith, 1941, Smithson. Misc. Coll. 99:4.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) eastward across the Pacific slopes of the Guatemalan highlands to southeastern Guatemala. The elevational distribution of this species is from about 600 to1500 m above sea level in Subtropical Wet and Subtropical Moist Forest. Fuegan and Jalapan Areas (map).


Geophis rhodogaster (Cope, 1868)
Colophrys rhodogaster Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20:130, Fig. Syntypes (3): ANSP 3316-17; USNM 12425 is probably an additional syntype, according to Stuart, 1963; ANSP 3317 designated as lectotype by Downs (1967). Type-locality: "the elevated country in the neighborhood of the city of Guatemala."
Geophis rhodogaster-Bocourt in Duméril, Bocourt, and Mocquard, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mexique Am. Centr., Pt. 3: 531; Pl. 31, Figs. 12-12d.
Geophis chalybaea-Günther, 1893, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[87] [in part].
Catostoma rhodogaster-Amaral, 1930 [dated 1929], Mem. Inst. Butantan 4:192.
DISTRIBUTION: This species occurs from the eastern portion of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (Mexico) across the Plateau and southern highlands of Guatemala to Cerro Montecristo in extreme northwestern El Salvador; it occurs on both Pacific and Atlantic slopes. Geophis rhodogaster occurs in the central portion of the Sierra de Chuacús, but, despite a continuous highland corridor, it apparently fails to reach the Sierra de las Minas and Verapaz highlands. It inhabits elevations of 1480­2600 m above sea level in Lower Montane Wet and Lower Montane Moist Forest. Chimaltenangan, Chuacús, Jalapan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Genus Hydromorphus Peters, 1859
Hydromorphus Peters, 1859, Montsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 277. Type-species: Hydromorphus concolor Peters, 1859, by monotypy.

CONTENT:

Hydromorphus concolor Peters, 1859
Hydromorphus concolor Peters, 1859, Montsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 277. Holotype: In Königlich Zoologische Museum. Type-locality: Costa Rica.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala to Panama. Quecchian, Mican, and Minan Areas (map).


Genus Imantodes Duméril, 1853
Imantodes Duméril, 1853, Mém. Acad. Sci. Paris 23: 507. Type-species: Coluber cenchoa Linnaeus.

CONTENT: Six species.


Imantodes cenchoa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coluber Cenchoa Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 226. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: America.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico through Central America to Paraguay and Bolivia. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Imantodes gemmistratus (Cope, 1861)
Himantodes gemmistratus Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861: 296. Holotype: Originally in ANSP, now lost. Type-locality: Originally given as San Salvador, Central America, but given as "near Isalco, San Salvador" by Cope (1860:265).

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Sonora and central Veracruz (Mexico) to Panama. Petén, Zacapan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Lampropeltis Fitzinger, 1843
Lampropeltis Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 25. Type species: Coluber getulus Linnaeus.

CONTENT: Probably about eight species.


Lampropeltis triangulum (Lacépède, 1789)
Coluber triangulum Lacépède, 1789, Hist. Nat. Quadr. Ovip. Serp. 2: 86. Holotype: Not traced. Type-locality: America.

DISTRIBUTION: Much of North America through Mexico and Central America into South America to Colombia and Ecuador. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chuacús, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Cuchumatan, Chimaltenangan, Cuilcan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Leptodeira Fitzinger, 1843
Leptodeira Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 27. Type-species: Coluber annulata Linnaeus.

CONTENT: Nine species.


Leptodeira annulata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coluber annulatus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 224. Holotype: Not traced. Type locality: Amazon Basin; restricted to lower Rio Amazon, Pará, Brazil, by Duellman (1958).
Leptodeira rhombifera Günther, 1872, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)9: 32. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.9.92. Type-locality: Rio Chisoy [= Chixoy], near the town of Cubulco [Baja Verapaz], Guatemala.
Leptodeira annulata rhombifera-Duellman, 1958, Bull. Am. Mus Nat. Hist. 114:39, Pls. 4-6.
DISTRIBUTION: Mexico to Argentina. Zacapan, Salaman, Fuegan, and Escuintlan (map).


Leptodeira frenata (Cope, 1886)
Sibon frenatum Cope in Ferrari­Perz, 1886, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 9: 184. Holotype: Apparently lost. Type-locality: Jalapa, Veracruz.
Leptodeira frenata-Dunn, 1936, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 22: 696.

DISTRIBUTION: Central Veracruz southward through most of the Yuctán Peninsula to northern Guatemala. Petén Area (map).


Leptodeira nigrofasciata Günther, 1868
Leptodeira nigrofasciata Günther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)1: 425. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.8.37. Type-locality: Nicaragua.

DISTRIBUTION: Guerrero (Mexico) southward through Central America to Costa Rica. Zacapan and Jalapan Areas (map).


Leptodeira polysticta Günther, 1895
Leptodira polysticta Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., p. 172 (pl. 55, fig. A). Syntypes: Originally 7; BMNH 1946.1.8.45 designated lectotype according to Stuart (1963: 104). Type locality: Jalapa, Oaxaca, and Yucatán, Mexico, and Belize, Honduras, and Panama.
Leptodiera septentrionalis polysticta-Duellman, 1958, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 114: 72 (pl. 17).
Leptodeira polysticta-Campbell, 1998, Amph. Rept. N. Guatemala, Yuctán, and Belize, p. 221.

DISTRIBUTION: Nayarit (Mexico) southwrd through Central America to Costa Rica. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chimaltenangan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuntlan Areas (map).


Genus Leptodrymus do Amaral, 1927
Leptodrymus do Amaral, 1927, Bull. Antivenin Inst. Am., 1927: 28. Type-species: Leptodrymus clarki do Amaral [= Masticophis pulcherrimus Cope].

CONTENT: One species.


Leptodrymus pulcherrimus (Cope, 1874)
Masticophis pulcherrimus Cope, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 26: 65. Syntypes: ANSP 5199 and ANSP 14688. Type-locality: Western side of Central America.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala to Costa Rica. Zacapan and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Leptophis Bell, 1825
Leptophis Bell, 1825, Zool Journal 2: 328. Type-species: Coluber ahaetulla Linnaeus.

CONTENT: Seven species.


Leptophis ahaetulla (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coluber ahaetulla Linaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 225. Holotype: Not traced. Type locality: "Asia, America."

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico southward through Central America to northwestern Ecuador and central Argentina. Petén, Mayan, Mican, and Minan Areas (map).


Leptophis mexicanus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854
Leptophis mexicanus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 536. Syntypes: MNHN 3453 and MNHN 3455. Type-locality: Mexico.
DISTRIBUTION: Tamaulipas (Mexico) southward through Central America to Costa Rica. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Leptophis modestus (Günther, 1872)
Ahaetulla modesta Günther, 1872, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)9: 15­37[26]. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.21.50. Type-locality: Rio Chisoy [= Chixoy] below the town of Cubulco [Baja Verapaz]. Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Chiapas (Mexico) through Guatemala to El Salvador and Honduras. Minan, Jalapan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Genus Masticophis Baird and Girard, 1853

 

Masticophis Baird and Girard, 1853, Catal. N. Am. Rept., p. 98. Type-species: Masticophis ornatus Baird and Girard.

CONTENT: About half a dozen species.


Masticophis mentovarius (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854)
Coryphodon mento-varius Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 187. Syntypes: MNHN 3199 and MNHN 3331. Type-locality: Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Central Mexico southward through Central America to Costa Rica. Petén, Mayan, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).

 

Genus Ninia Baird and Girard, 1853


Ninia Baird and Girard, 1853, Catal. N. Am. Rept., p. 49. Type-species: Ninia diademata Baird and Girard.

CONTENT: About ten species.


Ninia diademata Baird and Girard, 1853
Ninia diademata Baird and Girard, 1853, Catal. N. Am. Rept., p. 49. Holotype: USNM 12122. Type-locality: Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: San Luis Potosí (Mexico) through Guatemala to Honduaras. Petén, Quecchian, Minan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Ninia pavimentata (Bocourt, 1883)
Streptophorus maculatus pavimentatus Bocourt, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mexique, pl. 32, figs. 8­8d; pl. 33, fig. 2. Holotype: MNHN 1192. Type-locality: Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala. Quecchian, Minan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Ninia sebae (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854)
Streptophorus Sebae Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 515. Holotype: MNHN 3778. Type-locality: Mexico. Restricted to Veracruz by Schmidt and Andrews (1936).

DISTRIBUTION: Oaxaca and Veracruz (Mexico) southward through Guatemala to Costa Rica. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Oxybelis Wagler, 1830

 

Oxybelis Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 183. Type-species: Dryinus aeneus Wagler.

CONTENT: Four species.


Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1830)
Dryinus aeneus Wagler in Spix, 1824, Serp. Brasil, 12 (pl. 3). Holotype: ZMB. Type-locality: Near Ega [Brazil].

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Arizona (United States) southward through Central America into South America. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Merendón, Chuacús, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Oxybelis fulgidus (Daudin, 1803)
Coluber fulgidus Daudin, 1803, Hist. Nat. Rept. 6: 353. Holotype: MNHN. Type-locality: "Port-au-Prince, Saint Domingue," in error.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico through Central America to South America east of the Andes. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Jalapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan (map).

 

Genus Oxyrhopus Wagler, 1830

Oxyrhopus Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 185. Type-species: Oxyrhopus petola Linnaeus, bu subsequent restriction.

CONTENT: About a dozen species.

Oxyrhopus petola (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coluber petola Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p, 225. Holotype: Not given. Type-locality: Africa, obviously in error.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico through Central America to northwestern Ecuador and to Amazonian Bolivia and Brazil. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, and Merendón Areas (map).


Genus Pituophis Holbrook, 1842
Pituophis Holbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetology, 2nd ed., 4: 7. Type-species: Coluber melanoleucus Daudin.

CONTENT: Probably 3 or 4 species.


Pituophis lineaticollis (Cope, 1861)
Arizona lineaticollis Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 300. Holotype: Originally in ANSP, but now lost. Type-locality: Jalapa, Veracruz.

DISTRIBUTION: Edge of Mexican Plateau southward to Guatemala. Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, and probably Chuacús and Minan Areas (map).


Genus Pliocercus Cope, 1860


Pliocercus Cope, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Philadelphia 12:253. Type species: Pliocercus elapoides Cope.

CONTENT: The number of species in this variable genus is highly controversial. Many authorities recognize only two species, others recognize more than this.


Pliocercus elapoides Cope, 1860
Pliocercus elapoides Cope, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 253. Syntypes: ANSP 3810­3813 [4 syntypes]. Type-locality: Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
Pliocercus aequalis Salvin, 1861, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1861:227. Holotype: BM 1946.1.1.4. Type-locality: San Geronimo and the mountains of [Baja] Verapaz, Guatemala.
Pliocercus salvinii Müller, 1878, Verhand. Natur. Gesell. Basel 6:pl 2A [explanation on p. 709]. Holotype: NHMB 1495. Type-locality: Verapaz, Guatemala.
?Pliocercus sargii Fischer, 1881, Arch. Natur. 47:225, Pl. 11, Figs. 1-3. Holotype: Staatslich Museum fur Naturkunde Stuttgart 2012; present whereabouts unknown. Type-locality: Coban, Guatemala.
Liophis elapoides diastema Bocourt, 1886, Miss. Sci. Mex. Rept., 636, Pl. 41, Fig. 8. Syntypes (2): MNHN 88-132-133. Type-locality: Plateau of Guatemala.
Liophis elapoides aequalis-Bocourt, 1886, 637, Pl. 41, figs 7-7e [in part].
Elapochrus deppei-Günther, 1893, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[106].
Elapochrus aequalis-Günther, 1893, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[106, Pl. 36, Fig A] [in part].
Pliocercus elapoides diastemus-Smith, 1941, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 54:120.
Pliocercus elapoides laticollaris-Smith and Taylor,1945, 111.
Pliocercus elapoides salvinii-Stuart, 1948, Misc. Publ. us. Zool. Univ. Michigan 69:1­109[71].

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico through Guatemala to Honduras. The distributions for the three subspecies presently recognized from Guatemala are: Pliocercus e. diastemus along the Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) through Guatemala into El Salvador, P. e. salvinii from the Atlantic lowlands of Mexico and Guatemala, and P. e. aequalis from the Atlantic versant of central Guatemala and Chiapas (Mexico). Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Merendón, Cuchumatan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Pseustes Fitzinger, 1843


Pseustes Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., 27. Type-species: Dipsas dieperinkii Schlegel.

CONTENT:
Pseustes poecilonotus (Günther, 1858)
Spilotes poecilonotus Günther, 1858, Catal. Colubr. Snakes Brit. Mus., 100. Holotype: BM 1946.1.7.41. Type-locality: onduras, Mexico; [see Stuart, 1963:111]
1888 Spilotes argus Bocourt, 1888, Miss. Sci. Mex. Rept., 692, Pl. 48, Figs. 10-10f.[1890, date of publication for figures]. Holotype: Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, I. G. No. 9.422, Reg. No. 510, Reg. types No. 2.060. Type-locality: Mexico.
Spilotes lunulatus-Bocourt, 1888, Miss. Sci. Mex. Rept., 694, Pl. 42, Figs. 1-1e.
Pseustes [poecilontus poecilonotus]-Brongersma, 1937, Zool. Meded. 20:5-6. [By fiat.]
DISTRIBUTION: The subspecies P. p. poecilonotus occurs through most of the Yucatán Peninsula southward through the eastern portion of Petén (Guatemala) and Belize onto the Atlantic versant of Honduras. Pseustes p. argus ranges from San Luis Potosí (Mexico) southward into the western portion of Petén (Guatemala); this subspecies crosses the Continental Divide onto the Pacific versant in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, and Minan Areas (map).


Genus Rhadinaea Cope, 1863
Rhadinaea Cope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.. Philadelphia 1863: 100. Type-species: Taeniophis vermiculaticeps Cope.

CONTENT:


Rhadinaea anachoreta Smith and Campbell, 1994
Rhadinaea anachoreta Smith and Campbell, 1994, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 167: 1­9[2]. Holotype.-UTA R-33051. Type-locality: "north slope of Cerro del Aguacate, Aldea Negro Norte, Sierra de Caral, Municipio de Morales, Departamento de Izabal, Guatemala, 1180 m". "The type-locality is located at about 15°20´49´´ N, 88°40´35´´ W, which is only about 0.2 km from the Honduran border; the Sierra de Caral is the local name for the northern portion of the Sierra de Merendón in Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: Known from several localities in eastern and northern Guatemala: the Sierra de Santa Cruz, the Sierra de Caral, and Parque Nacional Tikal. Petén, Quecchian, and Merendón Areas (map).


Rhadinaea decorata (Günther, 1858)
Coronella decorata Günther, 1858, Biol Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., p. 35. Lectotype: BMNH 1946.1.9.4, designated by Myers (1974). Type-locality: Mexico.
Diadophis decoratus-Cope, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 250.
Rhadinaea decorata-Cope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 15: 101.

DISTRIBUTION: East-central Mexico southward through Central America to Ecuador. Petén, Quecchian, Mican, and Minan Areas (map).


Rhadinaea godmani (Günther, 1865)
Dromicus Godmanni Günther, 1865, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)12: 94 [Misspelling for godmani.] Lectotype: BMNH 1946.1.9.17, designated by Myers (1974). Type-locality: Dueñas, Sacatepequez, Guatemala.
Rhadinaea Godmani-Cope, 1875, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)8: 139.
Coronella godmani-Günther, 1893, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., p. 110.
Rhadinaea binfordi Rossman, 1965, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana St. Univ. 32: 4. Holotype: LSU 7565. Type-locality: 12 air miles north-northeast of Zanatepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, 4900 feet.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico through parts of Central America to western Panama. Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, Minan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Rhadinaea hannsteini (Stuart, 1949)
Trimetopon hannsteini Stuart, 1949, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 62: 165. Holotype: UMMZ 98756. Type-locality: Finca La Paz, 1450 m, 18 km (airline) due north of Coatepeque, San Marcos, Guatemala.
Rhadinaea hannsteini-Myers, 1974, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 153: 130.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guatemala. Fuegan Area (map).


Rhadinaea hempsteadae Stuart and Bailey, 1941
Rhadinaea hempsteadae Stuart and Bailey, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 442: 2. Holotype: UMMZ 89080. Type-locality: approximately 5700 feet [1738 meters] elevation, above Finca Chichén, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Guatemala east of the Río Chixoy. Quecchian and Minan Areas (map).


Rhadinaea kinkelini Boettger, 1898
Rhadinaea kinkelini Boettger, 1898, Kat. Rept. Samml. Mus. Senckenb., p. 68. Holotype: SMF 8178. Type-locality: Matagalpa, Nicaragua.
Liophis kinkelini-Amaral, 1929b, Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 172.
Rhadinaea veraepacis Stuart and Bailey, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 442: 10. Holotype: UMMZ 89077. Type-locality: Finca Chichén, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, 5100 feet.
Trimetopon veraepacis-Stuart, 1949, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 62: 167.
Rhadinaea pinicola
Mertens, 1952, Zool. Anz. 149:135. Holotype: SMF 43188. Type-locality: "Kiefernwald oberhalb der Hacienda San José, 1500 m. H. Gebirge von Metapan, Dept. Santa Ana, El Salvador."

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of central Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Quecchian and Minan Areas (map).


Rhadinaea lachrymans (Cope, 1870)
Lygophis lachrymans Cope, 1870, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 11: 154. Holotype: ANSP 5539. Type-locality: Probably from "Chiapas."
Rhadinaea lachrymans-Cope, 1875, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)8: 140.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guatemala and adjacent Mexico. Fuegan and Jalapan Areas (map).


Rhadinaea montecristi Mertens, 1952
Rhadinaea montecristi Mertens, 1952, Zool. Anz. 149:136. Holotype: SMF 43189. Type locality: "Hacienda Monte Cristo, 2200 m. H., Gebirge von Metapan, Dept. Santa Ana, El Salvador."

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of eastern Guatemala, western Honduras, and western El Salvador. Jalapan and Merendón Areas (map).


Rhadinaea pilonaorum (Stuart, 1954)
Trimetopon pilonaorum Stuart, 1954, Contrib. Lav. Vertebrate Biol. Univ. Michigan 68: 176. Holotype: UMMZ 102635. Type-locality: Finca La Gloria, about 950 m, about 12 km (airline) northeast of Chiquimulilla, Santa Rosa, Guatemala.
Rhadinaea pilonaorum-Myers, 1974, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 153: 145.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guatemala and El Salvador. Fuegan Area (map).


Rhadinaea posadasi (Slevin, 1936)
Trimetopon posadasi Slevin, 1936, Proc. California Acad. Sci. (4)23: 79. Holotype: CAS 66964. Type-locality: Southern slope of Volcán Zunil, Suchitepequez, Guatemala.
Rhadinaea posadasi-Myers, 1974, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 153: 147.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guatemala. Fuegan Area (map).


Rhadinaea stadelmani Stuart and Bailey, 1941
Rhadinaea stadelmani Stuart and Bailey, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 442: 4. Holotype: UMMZ 89078. Type-locality: Todos Santos, 8000 feet elevation, Huehuetenango, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes and Montañas de Cuilco in western Guatemala. Cuchumatan and Cuilcan Areas (map).


Genus Scaphiodontophis Taylor and Smith, 1943
Scaphiodontophis Taylor and Smith, 1943, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 29: 302. Type-species: Enicognathus annulatus Duméril and Bibron.

CONTENT: Perhaps only a single species, although as many as 3 or 4 species have sometimes been recognized.


Scaphiodontophis annulatus (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854)
Enicognathus annulatus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 335. Holotype: MNHN. Type-locality: Cobán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Scaphiodontophis annulatus-Taylor and Smith, 1943, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 29: 311.

DISTRIBUTION: Yucatán Peninsula and southern Mexico southward into Central America. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Genus Scolecophis Fitzinger, 1843
Scolecophis Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 25. Type-species: Calamaria atrocincta Schlegel.

CONTENT: One species.


Scolecophis atrocinctus (Schlegel, 1837)
Calamaria atrocincta Schlegell, 1837, Essai Phys. Serp., p. 47. Holotype: MNHN, but not definitely identifiable. Type-locality: Chile, obviously in error.
Scolecophis atrocincta-Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 25.
Scolecophis atrocinctus-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122: 114.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala to Costa Rica. Jalapan Area (map).


Genus Senticolis Dowling and Fries, 1987
Senticolis Dowling and Fries, 1987, Herpetologica 43(2): 200­207[202]. Type-species: Coluber triaspis Cope (1866).

CONTENT: One species.

Senticollis triaspis (Cope, 1866)
Coluber triaspis Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18:128. Holotype: USNM 24903. Type-locality: Belize.
Elaphe triaspis-Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187: 60.
Senticollis triaspis-Dowling and Fries, 1987, Herpetologica 43(2): 200­207[202].

DISTRIBUTION: Extreme southern Arizona (USA) through Mexico and Guatemala to Costa Rica. Petén, Quecchian, Minan, Zacapan, Salaman, and Jalapan Areas (map).


Genus Sibon Fitzinger, 1826
Sibon Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Classif. Rept., p. 31. Type-species: Coluber nebulatus Linnaeus.

CONTENT: Six species in Guatemala; numerous other species in lower Central America and South America.

Sibon anthracops (Cope, 1868)
Leptognathus anthracops Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1868: 136. Holotype: ANSP 10135. Type-locality: Central America.
Sibynomorphus ruthveni Barbour and Dunn, 1921, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 34: 158. Holotype: MCZ 15549. Type-locality: "Aguacate Mts., Costa Rica."
Sibon anthracops-Peters, 1960, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 114: 180 (pl. 7c).

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala to Panama. Zacapan and Jalapan Areas (map).


Sibon carri (Shreve, 1951)
Tropidodipsas carri Shreve, 1951, Copeia 1951: 52. Holotype: MCZ 49797. Type-locality: Escuela Agrícola Panamericana, near Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
Sibon carri-Peters, 1960, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 114: 194.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Zacapan and Jalapan Areas (map).

Sibon dimidiata (Günther, 1872)
Leptognathus dimidiatus Günther, 1872, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)9: 31. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.20.97. Type-locality: Mexico.
Petalognathus multifasciata Jan in Bocourt, 1884, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (7)8: 182. Holotype: Probably in MNHN. Type-locality: Verapaz, Guatemala.
Leptognathus (Asthenognathus) grandoculis Müller, 1890, Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel 8: 271. Holotype: Probably in NHMB. Type-locality: Mazatenango, Guatemala.
Sibon dimidiata-Smith, 1943, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 93: 470.
Sibon dimidiata dimidiata-Peters, 1960, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 114: 182 (pl. 7b).
Sibon dimidiata grandoculis-Peters, 1960, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 114: 185 (pl. 7a).

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico through Guatemala into Central America. Petén, Mayan, Mican, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Sibon fischeri (Boulenger, 1894)
Virginia fasciata Fischer, 1884, Jahrb. Hamburg Wissen. Anst. 2: 95. Syntypes: SMNS 2454 [2 specimens, one exchanged with BMNH]. Type-locality: Guatemala. [Preoccupied by Tropidodipsas fasciata Günther, 1858.]
Tropidodipsas fischeri Boulenger, 1894, Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus. 2: 296. [Substitute name for Virginia fasciata Fischer.]
Tropidoclonium annulatum Bocourt, 1892, Le Natural 1892: 132. Holotype: MNHN 94-97. Type-locality: Godinez, NE Volcán Atitlán, Guatemala, 2151 m.
Tropidodipsas kidderi Stuart, 1942, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 55: 177. Holotype: UMMZ 91065. Type-locality: Finca Samac, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Chiapas (Mexico) through Guatemala to Honduras. Quecchian, Minan, Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Sibon nebulata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coluber nebulatus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 222. Lectotype: NHRM 60, designated by Andersson (1899). Type-locality: America.
Sibon nebulatus-Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Classif. Rept., p. 31.
Sibon nebulatus-Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187: 126

DISTRIBUTION: West-central Mexico southward through Central America into northern South America. Petén, Mican, Jalapan, and Fuegan Areas (map).

Sibon sanniola (Cope, 1867)
Mesopeltis sanniolus Cope, 1867 [dated 1866], Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18: 318. Holotype: USNM 6564. Type-locality: Yucatan.
Leptognathus sanniolus-Mocquard, 1908, Miss. Sci. Mexique 34: 894.
Sibon anniolus-Smith, 1943, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 93: 470.
Dipsas sanniolus-Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187: 51.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map).

Sibon sartorii (Cope, 1863)
Tropidodipsas sartorii Cope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 15: 100. Holotype: USNM, now lost. Type-locality: Mirador, Veracruz, Mexico.
Geophis annulatus Peters, 1870, Monatsber. Akad. Wissen. Berlin 1870: 643 (pl. 1, fig. 2). Holotype: ZMB 6947. Type-locality: "Probably South America", obviously in error.
Leptognathus semicinctus Bocourt, 1884, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (7)8: 139. Holotype: MNHN 84-99. Type-locality: Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Leptognathus (Tropidodipsas) cuculliceps Müller, 1890, Verh. Natur. Gesell. Basel 8: 273 (pl. 1, fig. 4). Holotype: NMBA 1648. Type-locality: Verapaz, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Mexico southward through Guatemala to Honduras. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Merendón, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Spilotes Wagler, 1839
Spilotes Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 179. Type-species: Coluber pullatas Linnaeus, 1758.
Agriotes Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofidi, p. 81. Type-species: Herpetodryas incertus Jan, 1863.

CONTENT:


Spilotes pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coluber pullatus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 225. Holotype: None designated. Type locality: "Asia," obviously in error.
Cerastes mexicanus Laurenti, 1768, Synop. Rept., p. 83. Type: Probably based on Seba plate II, 20(1). Type-locality: None given, but Mexico by implication.
Spilotes sallvini Günther, 1862, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)9: 125, pl. 9, fig. 5. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.12.92. Type-locality: Yzabal, Guatemala.
Spilotes pullatus mexicanus-do Amaral, 1929, Bull. Inst. Butantan 4: 282.

DISTRIBUTION: Northeastern Mexico through Central America and South America to northern Argentina. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Merendón, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Stenorrhina Duméril, 1853
Stenorrhina Duméril, 1853, Mem. Acad. Sci. 23: 490. Type-species: Stenorhina ventralis Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854 [nomen nudum in original description of genus].
Microphis Hallowell, 1854, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1854: 97. Type-species: Microphis quinqueliniatus Hallowell, 1854.
Stenorhina Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 865. [Emendation of Stenorrhina Duméril.] Type-species: Stenorhina ventralis Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854.
Bergenia Steindachner, 1867, Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Rept., p. 92. Type-species: Bergenia mexicana Steindachner, 1867.

CONTENT: Two species.


Stenorrhina degenhardti (Berthold, 1846)
Calamaria Degenhardtii Berthold, 1846, Abh. K. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 3: 8 (pl. 1, figs. 3­4). Holotype: Zool. Instit. Mus. Göttingen 44/256. Type-locality: "Etwa 2š N.B. und 301š L.," Popayán Province, Colombia.
Stenorrhina degenhardtii-Cope, 1876, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)8: 142.
Bergenia mexicana Steindachner, 1867, Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Rept., p. 92, 3 figs. Holotype: Not designated. Type-locality: Mexico. Restricted to Córdoba, Veracruz, by Smith and Taylor (1950).
Stenorhina mexicana-Taylor, 1941, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 27: 122.
Stenorhina degenhardtii mexicana-Smith, 1943, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 93: 472.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Veracruz, Mexico, southward through Central America into South America. Petén, Quecchian, Mican, and Minan Areas (map).


Stenorrhina freminvillii Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854
Stenorhina Freminvillii Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 868 (pl. 70, figs. 1­2). Holotype: MNHN 816. Type-locality: Mexico.
Microphis quinqueliniatus Hallowell, 1855, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 97. Holotype: ANSP. Type-locality: Honduras.
Stenorhina lactea Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861: 303. Holotype: USNM 4944. Type-locality: La Union, Guatemala; restricted to La Union, El Salvador, by Smith and Taylor (1950).
Stenorhina degenhardtii apiata Cope, 1876, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)8: 142. Holotype: USNM 70405. Type-locality: El Barrio, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Geophis multitorques yucatanensis Barbour and Cole, 1906, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 50: 153. Holotype: MVZ 7037. Type-locality: "Chichen Itza, Yucatan," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: From Guerrero (Mexico) on the Pacific and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on the Atlantic southward through Panama. Petén, Quecchian, Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan (map).

 

Genus Storeria Baird and Girard, 1853


Storeria Baird and Griard, 1953, Catal. N. Am. Rept., p. 135. Type-species: Tropidonotus Dekayi Holbrook.

CONTENT: Three species.

Storeria dekayi (Holbrook, 1842)
Tropidonotus Dekayi Hobrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 4: 53 (pl. 14). Holotype: Not designated. Type-locality: Massachusetts and New York; restricted to Cambridge, Massachusetts, according to Schmidt (1953: 165).
Storeria dekayi-Baird and Girard, 1853, Catal. N. Am. Rept., p. 135.
Storeria tropica Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 22: 175. Holotype: USNM 6759. Type locality: El Petén, Guatemala.
Storeria dekayi tropica-Sabath and Sabath, 1969, Am. Midl. Nat. 81: 154.

DISTRIBUTION: Much of eastern North America southward through Mexico to Guatemala and Honduras; its distribution in the south becomes disjunct. Petén, Quecchian, and Minan Areas (map).


Genus Symphimus Cope, 1869

Symphimus Cope, 1869, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 11: 150. Type-species: Symphimus leucostomus Cope, 1869, by monotypy.

CONTENT: Two species.

Symphimus mayae (Gaige, 1936)
Eutypholis mayae Gaige, 1936, Carnegie Inst. Washington 457: 300­301. Holotype: UMMZ 73082. Type-locality: Dzitás, Yucatán, Mexico.
Opheodrys mayae-Schmidt and Necker, 1941, Herpetoloogica 1: 64.
Symphimus mayae-Rossman and Schaefer, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana St. Univ. 45:1­12.

DISTRIBUTION: This species has not been definitely recorded for Guatemala, but a report of a specimen from Caracol, Belize (J. R. Meyer, in litt.) places this species very near the Guatemalan border and it undoubtedly occurs within the territory of Guatemala. Petén Area (map).

 

Genus Tantilla Baird and Girard, 1853

Tantilla Baird and Girard, 1853, Catal. N. Am. Rept., p. 131. Type-species: Tantilla coronata Baird and Girard.

CONTENT: About 50 species.

Tantilla bairdi Stuart, 1941
Tantilla bairdi Stuart, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 452:1. Holotype: UMMZ 89223. Type-locality: 2 km NE Finca Chichén (10 km S Cobán, airline) on Chemellco trail, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, 1550 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Alta and Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. Quecchian and Minan Areas (map).


Tantilla brevicauda Mertens, 1952
Tantilla brevicauda Mertens, 1952, Zool. Anz. 149:137. Holotype: SMF 43243. Type-locality: "El Grito, Finca Los Angeles, 1510 m. H., Cumbre de Jayaque, Dept. La Libertad, El Salvador."

DISTRIBUTION: In El Salvador this species has been recorded from 1200­1510 m (Mertens, 1952). Fuegan Area (map).


Tantilla cuniculator Smith, 1939
Tantilla moesta cuniculator Smith, 1939, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 24: 32­34. Holotype: FMNH 19408. Type-locality: Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.
Tantilla cuniculator-Smith, 1942, Zoologica 27: 35­36.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map).


Tantilla jani (Günther, 1895)
Homalacranium jani Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., p. 148, pl. 52, fig. D. Syntypes: BMNH 1946.1.8.68 from Guatemala and BMNH 1946.1.8.71 from Nicaragua. BMNH 1946.1.8.68 designated lectotype by Smith (1942. Type-locatity: Restricted to Guatemala by designation of lectotype.
Tantilla cuesta Wilson, 1982, Milwaukee Pub. Mus. Contrib. Biol. Geol. 52: 1­77[29]. Holotype: MVZ 146762. Type-locality: Finca Santa Julia, 1.5 km E San Rafael Pie de la Cuesta, San Marcos, Guatemala, 1050 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guatemala. Fuegan and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Tantilla impensa Campbell, 1998
Tantilla impensa Campbell, 1998, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas 7:1­14[6]. Holotype: UTA R-38196. Type-locality: Aldea San Miguelitoo, Sierra de Caral, Municipio de Morales, Izabal, Guatemala, 460 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Fooothills of northern and easttern highlands of Guatemala, barely extending into Chiapas, Mexico, and Honduras. Petén, Mican, Merendón, Quecchian, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus, 1758)
Coluber melanocephalus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10: 218. Holotype: Not desingated. Type-locality: "America."
Tantilla melanocephala-Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861: 74.
Elapomorphus mexicanus Günther, 1862, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)9: 57, pl. 9, fig. 1. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.8.58. Type-locality: Mexico.
Homalocranion melanocephalum fuscum Bocourt, 1883, Mis. Sci. Mex., Rept., p. 589. Holotype: MNHN 6059. Type-locality: Guatemala.
Tantilla mexicana-Smith, 1942, Zoologica 27:37.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala through Central America to Argentina in South America. Zacapan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Tantilla moesta (Günther, 1863)
Homalocranium moestum Günther, 1863, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3)12: 352. Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.9.74. Type-locality: El Petén, Guatemala.
Tantilla moesta-Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18: 126.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala northward into the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map).


Tantilla rubra Cope, 1876
Tantilla rubra Cope, 1876, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (2)8:144. Holotype: USNM 26500. Type-locality: Tapanatepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Texas (USA) to western Guatemala. Grijalvan Area (map).


Tantilla schistosa (Bocourt, 1883)
Homalocranion schistosum Bocourt, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mexique, Rept., 584, pl. 36. Type: MNHN 83-506, by restriction of type-locality. Type-locality: Restricted to Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, by Smith (1942: 39).
Tantilla phrenetica Smith, 1942, Zoologica 27: 39 [in part]. Holotype: USNM 110381. Type locality: Cuautlapan, Veracruz, Mexico.
Tantilla shistosa shistosa-Smith, 1962, Herpetologica 18: 15.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versatn from Veracruz (Mexico) through Guatemala and Central America to Panama. Petén, Quecchian, and Merendón Areas (map).


Tantilla taeniata (Bocourt, 1883)
Homalocranion taeniatum Bocourt, 1883, Miss. Sci. Mexique, Rept., 587, pl. 37, figs. 3­3e. Holotype: MNHN 1666. Type-locality: Guatemala.
Homalocranium trivittatum Müller, 1885, Verhand. Natur. Gesell. Basel 7: 678. Holotype: NHMB 2119. Type-locality: Guatemala.
Tantilla taeniata-Cope, 1887, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 32: 83.

DISTRIBUTION: Antigua Basin and southeastern highlands of Guatemala. Jalapan and Chimaltenangan Areas (map).


Tantilla tayrae Wilson, 1983
Tantilla tayrae Wilson, 1983, J. Herpetol. 17:54, Fig. 1. Holotype: MVZ 159203. Type locality: "Finca San Jerónimo, 7.5 km N (by rd.) Cacaohatán [=Cacahoatán or Cacahuatán], elevation 760 m, Volcán Tacaná, Unión Juárez, Chiapas, México."

DISTRIBUTION: Not definitely known from Guatemala, but because of the proximity of the type-locality to Guatemalan border it may be anticipated to occur in this country. Fuegan Areas (map).


Tantilla tecta Campbell and Smith, 1998
Tantilla tecta Campbell and Smith, 1997, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 110:332­337[333]. Holotype: UTA R-41160. Type-locality: NE side of Laguna Yaxhá, Petén, Guatemala, 220 m.

DISTRIBUTION: Northeastern Petén of Guatemala. Petén Area (map).


Tantilla vulcani Campbell, 1998
Tantilla vulcani Campbell, 1998, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas 7:1­14[11]. Holotype: UTA R-21772. Type-locality: Finca El Carmen, Km 197.5 on CA-2, 518 m, Quezaltenango, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guatemala. Fuegan and Escuintlan Areas (map).



Genus Tantillita Smith, 1941
Tantillita Smith, 1941, J. Washington Acad. Sci. 31: 117. Type-species: Tantillita lintoni Smith, 1941, by monotypy.

CONTENT:


Tantillita brevissima (Taylor, 1937)

Tantilla brevissima Taylor, 1937, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 39:344, fig. 4. Holotype: EHT­HMS Coll. No. 4557. Type-locality: Tonalá, Chiapas, Mexico.
Tantillita brevissima-Smith, 1941, J. Washington Acad. Sci. 31: 117.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala. Escuintlan and probably Fuegan Areas (map).


Tantillita canula (Cope, 1876)
Tantilla canula Cope, 1876, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 144. Syntypes: USNM 24880­2. Type-locality: Yucatán.
Tantillita canula-Smith, Flores­Villela, and Chiszar, 1993, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc. 29Š 126­129.

DISTRIBUTION: Northern Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Petén Area (map).

Tantillita lintoni (Smith, 1940)
Tantilla lintoni Smith, 1940, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 53: 61, fig. 1. Holotype: USNM 108603. Type-locality: Piedras Negras, Petén, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic foothills of Guatemala and adjacent Chiapas, Mexico. Petén Area (map).


Genus Thamnophis Fitzinger, 1843
Thamnophis Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept., p. 26. Type-species: Coluber saurita Linnaeus, 1758.

CONTENT: About 25 species.

Thamnophis cyrtopsis (Kennicott, 1860)
Eutania cyrtopsis Kennicott, 1860, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 333. Holotype: USNM 8067. Type-locality: Rinconada, Coahuila, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread in North America and Mexico; apparently several disjunct populations in Guatemala. Salaman and Chimaltenangan Areas (map).


Thamnophis fulvus (Bocourt, 1893)
Eutania cyrtopsis var. fulvus Bocourt, 1893, Miss. Sci. Mexique, Rept., p. 777. Holotype: MNHN 94. Type-locality: Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Thamnophis fulvus-Webb, 1982, Bull. S. Acad. Sci. 81: 26­40[26].

DISTRIBUTION: Highlands of Chiapas (Mexico) through Guatemala to Honduras. Quecchian, Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, and Fuegan Areas (map).


Thamnophis marcianus (Baird and Girard, 1853)
Eutania marciana Baird and Girard, 1853, Smithson. Misc. Coll. 2: 1­172[36]. Holotype: USNM 844. Type-locality: Indian territory between Camp 5 and Red River [near Hollister, Tillman County, Oklahoma, according to Cochran, 1961).
Thamnophis marcianus-Ruthven, 1908, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 61: 1­201.
Thamnophis cyrtopsis sumichrasti-Neill and Allen, 1961, Herpetologica 17: 90­98[94].
Thamnophis marcianus praeocularis-Rossman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Louisiana St. Univ. 41: 1­13[11].

DISTRIBUTION: Southwestern United States through parts of Mexico to northern Costa Rica. Petén Area (map).

Thamnophis proximus (Say, 1823)
Coluber proximus Say, 1823, Exped. Pittsburg Rocky Mountains, vol 1, 344 pp.[339]. Holotype: Originally probably in the ANSP, but now lost. Type-locality: W side of Missouri River, 3 mi above the mouth of Bayer's River, Iowa [= 3 mi ENE Fort Calhoun, Washington County, Nebraska].
Thamnophis proximus-Strecker, 1909, Baylor Univ. Bull. 12: 1­9[8].
Thamnophis proximus rutiloris-Rossman, 1963, Bull. Florida St. Mus. 7: 99­178[125].

DISTRIBUTION: Central United States through parts of Mexico to central Costa Rica. Petén and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Tretanorhinus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854
Tretanorhinus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 348. Type-species: Tretanorhinus variabilis Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, by monotypy.

CONTENT: Four species.


Tretanorhinus nigroluteus Cope
Tretanorhinus nigroluteus Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 298. Holotype: USNM 5568. Type-locality: Greytown, Nicaragua [in error according to USNM catalogue, actually from Aspinwall, Panama].
Tretanorhinus nigroluteus nigroluteus-Dunn, 1939, Copeia 1939: 216.
Tretanorhinus nigroluteus lateralis-Dunn, 1939, Copeia 1939: 216.
Tretanorhinus nigroluteus mertensi Smith and Gillespie, 1965, J. Ohio Herpetol. Soc. 5: 1. Holotype: UIMNH 55937. Type-locality: "north edge of Lake Catemaco, 5 km east of Catemaco, Veracruz," Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: [mainland]. Three subspecies are recognized on the mainland (Dunn, 1939; Smith and Gillespie, 1965). All three subspecies proably occur in Guatemala. Subspecies are also known from Roatán and Guanaja Islands (Honduras) and Great Corn Island (Nicaragua) (Villa, 1969). Petén Area (map).


Genus Trimorphodon Cope, 1861
Trimorphodon Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861: 297. Type-species: Lycodon lyrophanes Cope.
Eteirodipsas Jan, 1863, Elenco Sist. Ofidi, p. 105. Type-species: Not indicated.
Hetaerodipsas Berg, 1901, Comun. Mus. Buenos Aires 1: 290. [Emendation of Eteirodipsas Jan.]

CONTENT: About 10 species.


Trimorphodon biscutatus (Duméril and Bibron, 1854)
Dipsas bi-scutata Duméril and Bibron, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 1153. Holotype: MNHN. Type locality: Mexico.
Trimorphodon biscutatus-Cope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1861: 297.
Trimorphodon biscutatus quadruplex Smith, 1941, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 91: 157. Holotype: USNM 89476. Type-locality: Esteli, Nicaragua.

DISTRIBUTION: Southwestern United States through Mexico and Central America to Costa Rica. Zacapan, Grijalvan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Xenodon Boie, 1827
Xenodon Boie in Schlegel, 1827, Isis von Oken 1827: 292. Type-species: Coluber severus Linnaeus.

CONTENT: Seven species.


Xenodon rabdocephalus (Wied, 1824)
Coluber rabdocephalus Wied, 1824, Isis von Oken 6: 668. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: Brazil.
Xenodon rabdocephalus-Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Classif. Rept., p. 57.
Xenodon mexicanus Smith, 1940, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 53: 57. Holotype: USNM 108596. Type-locality: Piedras Negras, Guatemala.
Xenodon rabdocephalus mexicanus-Schmidt, 1941, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 22: 501.

DISTRIBUTION: Gerrero and Veracruz (Mexico) southward through Central America to Bolivia. Petén, Mayan, Mican, Minan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


FAMILY ELAPIDAE

Genus Micrurus Wagler, 1824
Micrurus Wagler in Spix, 1824, Sp. Nov. Serp. Bras., p. 48. Type-species: Micrurus spixii Wagler.

CONTENT: About 55 species.


Micrurus browni Schmidt and Smith, 1943
Micrurus browni Schmidt and Smith, 1943, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 29: 29. Holotype: FMNH 38494. Type-locality: Chilpancingo (Ciudad Bravos), Guerrero, Mexico.
Micrurus browni browni-Roze, 1967, Am. Mus. Novitat. 2287: 11.
Micrurus browni importunus Roze, 1967, Am. Mus. Novitat. 2287: 11 (fig. 4). Holotype: BMNH 64.1.26.41A. Type-locality: "Dueñas, about 25 km west-southwest of Guatemala City, in Antigua Basin, Sacatepequez, Guatemala."

DISTRIBUTION: Central and southern Mexico to the Antigua Basin of Guatemala. Grijalvan and Chimaltenangan Areas (map).


Micrurus diastema (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854)
Elaps diastema Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 1222. Lectotype: MNHN 7657, designated by Schmidt (1933). Type-locality: Mexico
Elaps epistema Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7: 1222. Holotype: MNHN 3992. Type-locality: Mexico

DISTRIBUTION: Central Veracruz (Mexico) southward through Guatemala to Honduaras. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Merendón, and Minan Areas (map).


Micrurus elegans (Jan, 1858)
Elaps elegans Jan, 1858, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2)10: 524. Lectotype: MSNM, designted by Schmidt (1958), but destroyed during WW II. Type-locality: Mexico.
Micrurus elegans verae-pacis Schmidt, 1933, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 20: 32. Holotype: Zool. Sammlung Bayer. Staates 2247a. Type-locality: Campur, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Central Veracruz to Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Quecchian, Minan, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Micrurus hippocrepis (Peters, 1862)
Elaps hippocrepis Peters, 1862, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berline 1861: 925. Holotype: ZMB 4065. Type-locality: Santo Tomás [= Puerto Matías de Gálvez], Izabal, Guatemala.
Micrurus hippocrepis-Schmidt, 1933, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 36.

DISTRIBUTION: Caribbean lowlands and slopes of Belize and eastern Guatemala. Petén and Mican Areas (map).


Micrurus latifasciatus Schmidt, 1933
Micrurus latifasciatus Schmidt, 1933, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 35. Holotype: MCZ 22135, Type-locality: Finca El Ciprés, Suchitepequez, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of southern Mexico and Guatemala. Fuegan Area (map).


Micrurus nigrocinctus (Girard, 1854)
Elaps nigrocinctus Girard, 1854, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1854: 226. Holotype: USNM 7347. Type-locality: Taboga Island, Panama.
Micrurus nigrocinctus zunilensis
Schmidt, 1932, Proc. California Acad. Sci. 20:265­267[266]. Holotype: CAS 66001. Type-locality: "Finca El Cipres, lower slopes of Volcan Zunil, Province of Suchetepequez [sic], near Samayac, near Mazatenango, Guatemala.
Micrurus nigrocinctus wagneri Mertens, 1941, Senckenbergiana 23:: 216. Holotype: SMF 34190. Type-locality: Finca Germania, Sierra Madre, Chiapas, Mexico, 400­1300 m.
Micrurus nigrocinctus ovandoensis Schmidt and Smith, 1943, Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 29: 26. Holotype: USNM 111331. Type-locality: Salto de Agua, Mount Ovando, about 15 mi northeast of Escuintla, Chiapas, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Oaxaca (Mexico) southward through Central America to Pacific Colombia. Fuegan, Escuintlan, Zacapan, and probably Jalapan Areas (map).


Micrurus stuarti Roze, 1967
Micrurus stuarti Roze, 1967, Am. Mus. Novitat. 2287: 47 (fig. 17). Holotype: UMMZ 106708. Type-locality: Finca La Paz, San Marcos, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant of Guatemala. Fuegan Area (map).


Genus Pelamis Daudin, 1803
Pelamis Daudin, 1803, Hist. Nat. Rept. 7: 357. Type-species: Anguis platura Linnaeus, 1766.
Pelamys Oken 1816, Okens Lahrbuch der Naturgeschichte 3(2): 279. [Emendation of Pelamis Daudin.]
Ophinectes Rafinesque, 1817, Am. Month. Mag. Crit. Rev. 1: 432. Type-species: None designated.
Elaphrodytes Gistl, 1848, Naturgeschichte des Tierreichs, p. ix. [Substitute name for Hydrus Daudin.]
Pelamydrus Stejneger, 1910, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 38: 111. Type-species: Anguis platura Linnaeus.

CONTENT: One species.


Pelamis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Anguis platura Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., Ed. 12, p. 391. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: None given.
Pelamus platurus-Peters and Orejas­Miranda, 1970, United States Natl. Mus. Bull. 297(1): 1­347[239].

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific Ocean including the west coast of the Americas from California (United States) to Ecuador; Indo-Australian Seas. Marine.


FAMILY VIPERIDAE

Genus Agkistrodon Beauvois, 1799
Agkistrodon Beauvois, 1799, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 4:381 [spelled p. 370 Agkishodon, typographical error]. Type species: Agkistrodon mokasen, XXXXXX [= Boa contortrix Linnaeus].

CONTENT: Four species.
Agkistrodon bilineatus Günther, 1863
Ancistrodon bilineatus Günther, 1863, Ann Mag. Nat. Hist., ser 3, 12:364. Holotype: BM 1946.1.19.97. Type-locality: Pacific coast of Guatemala.
Agkistrodon bilineatus-Stejneger, 1899, N. Am. Fauna 14: 71
Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatus-Burger and Robertson, 1951, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34: 214.

DISTRIBUTION: Sonora and the Yucatán of Mexico southward to southwestern Costa Rica. Petén, Salaman, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Atropoides Werman, 1992
Atropoides Werman, 1992, Biol Pitvipers, p. 34. Type-species: Atropoides picadoi Dunn, by original designation.

CONTENT: Five species


Atropoides nummifer (Rüppel)
Atropos nummifer Rüppel, 1845, Verz. Sencken. Mus. 1845:313. Holotype: SMF 21196. Type locality: Unknown; restricted to Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico, by Burger, 1950.
Atropos mexicanus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 7:1521, Pl. 83 bis, Figs. 1-2. Holotype: MNHN 6712. Type-locality: Coban, [Alta] Verapaz, Guatemala.
Bothriechis nummifera notata Fischer, 1880, Arch. Natur. 46: 222, Pl. 8, Figs. 10-12. Holotype: Staatslich Museum fur Naturkinde Stuttgart 1967 [present status unkown]. Type-locality: Coban, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

DISTRIBUTION: Central Mexico to Panama. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Merendón, and Cuchumatan Areas (map).


Atropoides occiduus (Hoge, 1966)
Bothrops affinis Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 5, 10:201. Syntypes (3): MNHN 1194-96. Type-locality: San Agustin, on the west [south] slope of the mountains, Guatemala; 610 m. [Preoccupied by Bothrops affinis Gray, 1849.]
Bothrops nummifer affinis-Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 122: 130.
Bothrops nummifer occiduus Hoge, 1966, Mem. Inst. Butantan 32: 130. [Replacement name for Bothrops affinis Bocourt.]

DISTRIBUTION: Pacific versant from southeastern Oaxaca (Mexico) eastward through Guatemala to El Salvador. This species also is known from the extreme western portion of the Sierra de las Minas. Fuegan, Minan, and probably Chuacús and Jalapan Areas (map).


Genus Bothriechis Peters, 1859


Bothriechis Peters, 1859, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 278. Type-species: Bothriechis nigroviridis, by original designation.

CONTENT: Eight species.


Bothriechis aurifer (Salvin, 1860)
Thamnocenchris aurifer Salvin, 1860, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1860:459, Pl. 32, Fig. 1. Holotype: BM 1946.1.17.71. Type-locality: Coban, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Bothriechis aurifera-Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[189].
Trimeresurus aurifer-Mocquard, 1909, Miss. Sci. Mexique, p. 950.
Bothrops nigroviridis aurifera-Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Antiv. Inst. Am. 3:1.
Bothrops nigroviridis aurifer-Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187:182.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant from eastern Chiapas (Mexico) to eastern Guatemala. In Guatemala, this species occurs in the Sierrad de las Minas, the highlands of Alta Verapaz, and the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, although no specimens have reached museum collections from the latter range. Quecchian, Cuchumatan, and Minan Areas (map).


Bothriechis bicolor (Bocourt, 1868)
Bothrops bicolor Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser 5, 10:202. Syntypes (2): MNHN 1362, 6137. Type-locality: San Agustin on the west [south] slope of the cordillera, [Departamento de] Solola, Guatemala. Mocquard, 1909, states that there were 4 syntypes, but...
Bothrops (Bothriechis) bernoullii Müller, 1877, Verhand. Natur. Gesell. Basel 6:399, Fig. 3a. Holotype: NHMB 2629. Type-locality: slope of [Volcán] Atitlan, Guatemala.
Trimeresurus bicolor-Mocquard, 1909, Miss. Sci. Mexique, p. 948, Pl. 76, sigs 1-1a.

DISTRIBUTION: The Pacific versant from Chiapas (Mexico) eastward to the Volcán de Agua, Departamento de Escuintla, Guatemala. Also known from several isolated localities in Honduras. Fuegan Area (map).


Bothriechis schlegelii (Berthold, 1846)
Trigonocephalus schlegelii Berthold, 1846, Abh. Konig. Gesell. Wissen. Gottingen, 13, Pl. 1, Figs. 5-6. Holotype: Zoologisches Institut and Museum Gottingen 121/261 (stated to be in the Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, FRG, with the registration number FFMK 32555, by Ulrich Kuch, pers. comm., 24 Oct. 1996) . Type locality: Popayan Province, Colombia.
Bothrops schlegeli-Jan, 1863, Elenco Sist. Degli Ofidi, 127.
Bothriechis schlegeli-Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[189].
Bothrops schlegelii-Smith and Taylor, 1945. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187: 183.

DISTRIBUTION: Atlantic versant from Chiapas (Mexico) and Belize southward to Costa Rica, where an apparently isolated population occurs on the Pacific versant in the southeastern portion of the country; in Panama the species occurs in on both Atlantic and Pacific versants and it distribution extends into Colombia and Venezuela on Atlantic slopes and into Colombia, Ecuador, and extreme northern Peru on the Pacific. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, and Merendón Areas (map).


Genus Bothrops Wagler, 1824
Bothrops Wagler in Spix, 1824, Serp. Brasil, 50. Type species: Coluber megaera Shaw [= Coluber atrox Linnaeus].

CONTENT: About 30 species.

Bothrops asper (Garman, 1883)
Trigonocephalus asper Garman, 1883, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 8:124 [also distributed under cover of Kentucky Geological Survey]. Syntypes: MCZ 2718 [2 heads]. Type-locality: Obispo, Panama.
Bothrops atrox septentrionalis Müller, 1885, Verhand. Natur. Gesell. asel 7:699. Syntypes (7): [Only 4 type specimens now extant and one of these, NHMB 2558, designated as lectotype, according to Forcart in Stuart, 1963]. Type-locality: Costa Grande, Guatemala.
Bothrops atrox-Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[187].
Trimeresurus atrox-Mocquard, 1909, Miss. Sci. Mexique, 940.
Bothrops atrox asper-Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187: 180.
DISTRIBUTION: Tamaulipas (Mexico) southward through Mexico and Central America to Venezuela and Ecuador. Petén, Mayan, Quecchian, Mican, Minan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).


Genus Cerrophidion Campbell and Lamar, 1992
Cerrophidion Campbell and Lamar, 1982, Occas. Pap. Mus. Texas Tech Univ. 153: 24. Type species: Cerrophidion godmani Günther.

CONTENT: Four species.


Cerrophidion godmani (Günther)
Bothriechis godmanni Günther, 1863, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser 5, 12:364, Pl. 6, Fig. G. [comment on spelling]. Holotype: 1946.1.18.80. Type-locality: "Duenas and other parts of the tableland of Guatemala."
Bothrops brammianus Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 5, 10:201. Syntypes (2?): MNHN 1596-97 [Mocquard, 1909, infers that there were 4]. Type-locality: San Lucas, Guatemala; 1558 meters.
Bothrops (Bothriechis) godmanii-Müller, 1877, Verhand. Natur. Gesell. Basel 6:402, Pl. 3, Fig. B.
Bothriechis scutigera Fischer, 1880, Arch Natur. 1880:218, Pl. 8, Figs. 8-9. Holotype: Staatslich Museum fur Naturkunde Stuttgart 1943 [present status unknown]. Type-locality: Guatemala.
Bothriechis trianguligera Fischer, 1883, Osterprog. Akad. Gymnas. Hamburg 1883:13. Holotype: ZMH 1045. Type-locality: Guatemala.
Bothriechis godmani-Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[190, Pl. 57. Fig. A].
Trimeresurus godmani-Mocquard, 1909, Miss. Sci. Mexique, 942.
Bothrops godmani-Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187: 181.
Cerrophidion godmani-Campbell and Lamar, 1993, Occas. Pap. Mus. Texas Tech Univ. 153: 24.

DISTRIBUTION: Mountainous regions from southeastern Oaxaca (Mexico) southward to western Panama. In Guatemala, this species is widespread at elevations over 1,500 m and occurs in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, the Sierra de Cuilco, the Guatemalan Plateau, the Sierra de Chuacús, the Alta Verapaz highlands, the Sierra de las Minas, the southeastern highlands, and it has been reported from many of the volcanos flanking the southern edges of the Guatemalan Plateau and the southeastern highlands. Quecchian, Minan, Chuacús, Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, Cuchumatan, Cuilcan, and Fuegan (map).


Genus Porthidium Cope, 1871


Porthidium Cope, 1871, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1871: 207. Type-species: Trigonocephalus lansbergii Schlegel.

CONTENT:
Seven species.

Porthidium nasutum (Bocourt, 1868)
Bothrops nasutus Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser 5, 10:202. Holotype: MNHN 1592. Type locality: Panzos, on the banks of the Rio Polochic, Guatemala.
Bothrops lansbergii-Günther, 1895, Biol. Cent. Am., Rept. Batr., 326 pp.[190]. [In part.]
Trimeresurus brachystoma-Mocquard, 1909, Miss. Sci. Mexique 945, Pl. 75, Figs. 4-4a [in part].
DISTRIBUTION: Lowlands of the Atlantic versant from Tabasco (Mexico) southward to northern Colombia; on the Pacific Versant of Costa Rica and Panama to Ecuador. Petén, Mayan, Mican, and Quecchian Areas (map).

Porthidium ophryomegas (Bocourt, 1868)
Bothrops ophryomegas Bocourt, 1868, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 5, 10:201. Holotype: MNHN 1539. Type-locality: hot lands on the western [southern] side of the mountains at Escuintla, Guatemala.
Trimeresurus ophryomegas-Mocquard, 1909, Miss. Sci. Mexique, p. 944, Pl. 75, Figs. 3-3a.
DISTRIBUTION: Lowlands of the Pacific versant from about south-central Guatemala to northwestern Costa Rica, possibly to western Panama. This species also occurs in some of the dry interior valleys of Guatemala and Honduras, including the Río Motagua. Zacapan, Jalapan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).

 

Genus Crotalus Linnaeus, 1758


Crotalus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1: 824 pp. [214]. Type species: Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758.

CONTENT: About 30 species.

Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758
Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1: 824 pp. [214]. Holotype: Unknown. Type-locality: America.
Crotalus durissus durissus-Klauber, 1936, Occas. Pap. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 1:4.
Crotalus durissus durissus-Smith and Taylor, 1945, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187: 190. [In part.]
Crotalus durissus tzabcan Klauber, 1952, Bull. Zool. Soc. San Diego 26:71. Holotype: FMNH 36168. Type-locality: Kantunil, Yucatan, Mexico.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico into southern South America. Petén, Mayan, Zacapan, Salaman, Grijalvan, Jalapan, Chimaltenangan, Fuegan, and Escuintlan Areas (map).